Mitigation Milestone Reached at Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Site

Photo courtesy of GreenVest

Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Project will Restore and Protect 80+ Acres of Mattawoman Creek, Chesapeake Bay’s Most Productive Tributary

As one of the Chesapeake Bay’s most productive tributaries and a vital part of Maryland’s natural resources, Mattawoman Creek supports some of the largest populations of finfish, amphibians, and birds in the state. A collaborative team of private and public sector entities have designed the “Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Site” in Pomfret, Charles County, Maryland, an effort that will enhance or create 64+ acres of wetlands and restore nearly 3,800 linear feet of this perennial stream.  With over 28,500 native trees and shrubs to be planted, this mitigation project will result in 80+ acres of continuous, forested wetland with complex and diverse vegetative communities. It is expected to provide a wide array of habitat to resident and transient wildlife, including birds, reptiles, invertebrates, amphibians and rare, threatened and endangered species.

Unique to this project, Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Site is Maryland’s first-ever Umbrella Mitigation Banking Instrument (UMBI) for federal and other government agency use.   A UMBI is the bundling of multiple mitigation banks into one agreement in order to streamline the regulatory approval process, thereby eliminating steps and involving fewer resources. The Maryland UMBI document helps the USAF and other public agencies secure certainty of cost and schedule, facilitate timely permit issuance, and expedite the satisfaction of their permitted requirements for planned capital improvement projects. This approach also maximizes the scale of restoration and resulting land protection and efforts, creating contiguous blocks of habitat with greatly enhanced benefits compared to single, permittee-responsible projects. This precedent was a result of a partnership between United States Air Force (USAF) and Joint Base Andrews (JBA), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE), GreenTrust Alliance, GreenVest, and Princeton Hydro.

Projects completed under the UMBI will reduce federal and state workload expediting the regulatory review and issuance of permits by the MDE and USACE. Additionally, projects completed under this UMBI will aid in compliance with the Federal Paperwork Reduction Act where federal regulatory staff can evaluate success and performance issues for multiple permittees at one single habitat restoration or mitigation site. In addition, federal costs are capped, and liabilities  are transferred through to GreenVest, the private sector operator, and GreenTrust Alliance, the nonprofit bank sponsor, who will also serve as the long-term steward of sites restored under this program.

Pictured is the southern restoration area after
sorghum germination, prior to wetland creation
and reestablishment.
A function-based stream assessment was
performed on the degraded channel.

 

Photo courtesy of GreenVestDesign, engineering/modeling, and permitting of the site was completed by  Princeton Hydro and GreenVest under our currently Ecosystem Restoration contract with the USACE. Princeton Hydro also provided an Environmental Assessment and Environmental Baseline Survey, and conducted a geotechnical investigation, which included the advancement of test pits, visual and manual investigation techniques and logging, infiltration testing, laboratory soils testing, and seasonal high-water table estimations.

A wetland water budget was also developed for the proposed wetland creation and restoration to determine if sufficient water is available to establish or reestablish wetlands on the site. It was also used to inform design development including proposed grading and plant community composition. The establishment and re-establishment of wetlands on the site will be accomplished through directed grading, ditch plugging and stream restoration designed to maximize the retention of surface water, floodplain re-connection, and groundwater inputs.

Highlights from the Mattawoman Creek Wetland and Stream Mitigation project:
  • 80 acres of land were placed into conservation easement and removed from active row crop production and cattle pasture. The easement, which is held by GreenTrust Alliance, provides permanent protection for all 80 acres.
  • Over 64 acres of wetlands will be restored, created, enhanced or preserved, which will sequester approximately 75 tons of carbon per year.
  • 3,798 linear feet of perennial stream will be restored by re-establishing, historic floodplain access during more frequent storm events, stabilizing hydraulics and geomorphology, and adding aquatic habitat value.
  • Full integration of the wetland and stream restoration elements will occur exponentially, increasing anticipated functions and values in the post construction condition. Functions include: storm damage and flood attenuation, groundwater recharge and discharge, nutrient cycling and sequestration, local water quality improvement, and wildlife habitat enhancements.
  • This project will also create and enhance the forested wetland and stream habitat for the State-listed Threatened Selys’ Sundragon (Helocordulia selysii).
  • As part of the site design, over 28,500 native trees and shrubs will be planted.
  • The Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Site is located within a Tier 3 Biodiversity Conservation Network area. These areas are classified by the Department of Natural Resources as “highly significant for biodiversity conservation” and are priority conservation areas that support critical species and habitats.
  • The project will yield advanced mitigation values: 7.913 in wetland credits and 1,595 in stream credits. These credits are durable and will be available for JBA’s use in order to satisfy permitted impacts associated with planned capital improvement projects.

Over 6,000 acres (25%) of the Mattawoman Creek watershed has been protected by public ownership and various conservation and agricultural easements, which, in addition to the Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Site, help ensure that Mattawoman Creek forever remains a high-quality destination for outdoor recreation.

Princeton Hydro specializes in the planning, design, permitting, implementing, and maintenance of tidal and freshwater wetland rehabilitation projects. To learn more about our wetland restoration, creation, and enhancement services, visit: http://bit.ly/PHwetland

Innovative and Effective Approach to Wetland Restoration

The Pin Oak Forest Conservation Area is a 97-acre tract of open space that contains an extremely valuable wetland complex at the headwaters of Woodbridge Creek. The site is located in a heavily developed landscape of northern Middlesex County and is surrounded by industrial, commercial, and residential development. As such, the area suffered from wetland and stream channel degradation, habitat fragmentation, decreased biodiversity due to invasive species, and ecological impairment. The site was viewed as one of only a few large-scale freshwater wetland restoration opportunities remaining in this highly developed region of New Jersey.

Recognizing the unique qualities and great potential for rehabilitating and enhancing ecological function on this county-owned parkland, a dynamic partnership between government agencies, NGOs, and private industry, was formed to restore the natural function of the wetlands complex, transform the Pin Oak Forest site into thriving habitat teeming with wildlife, and steward this property back to life. The team designed a restoration plan that converted 28.94 acres of degraded freshwater wetlands, 0.33 acres of disturbed uplands dominated by invasive species, and 1,018 linear feet of degraded or channelized streams into a species-rich and highly functional headwater wetland complex.

BEFORE
View of stream restoration area upon commencement of excavation activities. View of containerized plant material staged prior to installation.

 

We used an innovative approach to restore the hydraulic connection of the stream channel with its floodplain in order to support wetland enhancement. Additionally, to further enhance wetlands with hydrologic uplift, the team incorporated microtopography techniques, which creates a variable surface that increases groundwater infiltration and niches that support multiple habitat communities. This resulted in a spectrum of wetland and stream habitats, including the establishment of a functional system of floodplain forest, scrub shrub, emergent wetlands and open water. Biodiversity was also increased through invasive species management, which opened the door for establishing key native flora such as red maple, pin oak, swamp white oak, and swamp rose. The restored headwater wetland system also provides stormwater quality management, floodplain storage, enhanced groundwater recharge onsite, and surface water flows to Woodbridge Creek.

Completed in 2017, the integrated complex of various wetland and upland communities continues to provide high quality habitat for a wide variety of wildlife species including the state-threatened Black-crowned Night heron and Red-headed Woodpecker. The work done at the site significantly enhanced ecological function, providing high-quality habitat on indefinitely-preserved public lands that offer countless benefits to both wildlife and the community.

AFTER
Post-restoration in 2018, looking Northeast. View of wetland enhancement approximately 2 months after completion of seeding and planting activities.

 

Public and private partnerships were and continue to be critical to the success of this project. The diverse partnership includes Middlesex County Office of Parks and Recreation, Woodbridge Township, Woodbridge River Watch, New Jersey Freshwater Wetlands Mitigation Council, GreenTrust Alliance, GreenVest, and Princeton Hydro. The partners joined together as stakeholders to identify long term restoration and stewardship goals for Pin Oak Forest Preserve, and nearly four years later, the partners all remain involved in various aspects of managing the property and this project itself, ranging from fiscal oversight by New Jersey Freshwater Wetland Mitigation Council and GreenTrust Alliance, to permit and landowner access coordination performed by Woodbridge Township and Middlesex County, or the ongoing stewardship, maintenance, and monitoring of the project and the larger park, being conducted by being conducted by GreenTrust Alliance, GreenVest, and NJ Department of Environmental Protection.

This project was funded through the New Jersey Freshwater Wetland In-Lieu Fee program. In 2014, GreenTrust Alliance, GreenVest, and Princeton Hydro secured $3.8 million dollars of funding on behalf of the Middlesex County Parks Department to restore three wetland sites, which included Pin Oak Forest.

The Pin Oak Forest project is a great model for showcasing a successful approach to the enhancement of public lands through a dynamic multidisciplinary, multi-stakeholder partnership. And, because of proper planning and design, it has become a thriving wildlife oasis tucked in the middle of a densely-populated suburban landscape.

Princeton Hydro specializes in the planning, design, permitting, implementing, and maintenance of wetland rehabilitation projects. To learn more about our wetland restoration, creation, and enhancement services, visit: bit.ly/PHwetland

Wild & Scenic Film Festival is Coming to Hackettstown

To celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, the Musconetcong Watershed Association (MWA) is hosting the “Wild & Scenic Film Festival On Tour”. The festival is free and open to the public, but seating is limited so, registration is required. The festival will be held on Sunday, September 9th from 10 am to 2 pm at Centenary University in Hackettstown, NJ.

To bring communities together around local and global environmental issues, The “Wild & Scenic Film Festival” goes “on-tour” partnering with nonprofit organizations and local groups to screen films year-round with hopes of inspiring individuals to take environmental action. The tour stops in 170 communities around the globe, features over 150 award-winning films, and welcomes over 100 guest speakers, celebrities, and activists who bring a human face to the environmental movement.

Credit: NPS.gov

The Hackettstown, NJ tour event will feature 11 short films including River Connections, which celebrates the 50th anniversary of the Federal Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, under which the Musconetcong River is protected. The film explores the importance of free-flowing rivers and highlights the recent Hughesville Dam removal project. An interactive panel event will follow the film screening and feature experts including MWA Executive Director Alan Hunt, Ph.D. and Princeton Hydro President Geoffrey Goll, P.E., who were both interviewed in the film.

“Our multidisciplinary approach to dam removal using ecology and engineering, paired with a dynamic stakeholder partnership, led to a successful river restoration, where native fish populations returned within a year,” said Princeton Hydro’s President Geoffrey Goll, P.E. “We are grateful for MWA’s hard work in organizing this film festival so we can continue to share our dam removal success stories and the importance of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act.”

Princeton Hydro, a proud sponsor of the “Wild & Scenic Film Festival On Tour,” has worked with MWA to design five dam removals on the Musconetcong River, including the Hughesville Dam. As noted in the River Connections film, the Hughesville Dam was a major milestone in restoring migratory fish passage along the Musconetcong. Only a year after the completion of the dam removal, American shad were documented as having returned to the “Musky” for the first time in 250 years.

The tour leads up to the annual 5-day film festival, which will be held January 17-21, 2019 in Nevada City and Grass Valley, California. Sponsored by National Park Service, the Wild & Scenic Film Festival honors the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, landmark legislation passed by Congress in October 1968 that safeguards the free-flowing character of rivers by precluding them from being dammed, while allowing the public to enjoy them. It encourages river management and promotes public participation in protecting streams.

EVENT DETAILS:

Date:         Sunday, September 9th

Time:         Doors open at 10 am and shows start at 11 am

Location:  Centenary University, Sitnik Theatre,
                  400 Jefferson St, Hackettstown, NJ 07840

Tickets:     FREE! Please register in advance:
                   https://goo.gl/NrwcgE

 

Interested to learn more about River Connections?
Check out our blog celebrating the release of the film: 

Restoring and Revitalizing Freshwater Mussels

Freshwater mussels are among the oldest living and second most diverse organisms on Earth with over 1,000 recognized species. Here in the eastern part of the U.S., we have more species of freshwater mussels than anywhere in the world. Unfortunately, freshwater mussels are one of the most rapidly declining animal groups in North America. Out of the 300 species and subspecies found on the continent, 70 (23%) have been federally listed as “Threatened” or “Endangered” under the Endangered Species Act. And, in the last century, over 30 species have become permanently extinct. So, why are populations declining so fast?

Freshwater mussels are filter feeders and process large volumes of the water they live in to obtain food. This means of survival also makes them highly susceptible to industrial and agricultural water pollution.  Because they are constantly filtering water, the contaminants and pathogens that are present are absorbed into the mussel’s tissues. As such, mussels are good indicators of water quality and can greatly contribute to improving water quality by filtering algae, bacteria and organic matter from the water column.

Not only do freshwater mussels rely on water quality, they are dependent on fish and other aquatic organisms for reproductive success. In order for a freshwater mussel to complete the reproduction process, it must “infect” a host fish with its larvae. The method depends on the specie of mussel. Some species lure fish using highly modified and evolved appendages that mimic prey. When a fish goes into investigate the lures, the female mussel releases fertilized eggs that attach to the fish, becoming temporarily parasitic. Once the host fish is infected, it can transfer the mussel larvae upstream and into new areas of the river.

Both habitat loss from dam construction and the introduction of pesticides into the water supply has contributed to the decline of freshwater mussels. With approximately 300 mussel species in the U.S. alone, a critical component of restoring and revitalizing mussel populations is truly understanding their biology, which begins with the ability to properly differentiate each species and properly identify and catalog them. Princeton Hydro’s Senior Scientist Evan Kwityn, CLP and Aquatic Ecologist Jesse Smith recently completed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service‘s Fresh Water Mussel Identification Training at the National Conservation Training Center in West Virginia.

Through hands-on laboratory training, Evan and Jesse developed their freshwater mussel identification skills and their knowledge of freshwater mussel species biology. Course participants were tasked with mastering approximately 100 of the most common freshwater mussel species in the United States. They also learned about proper freshwater mussel collection labeling, the internal and external anatomy and meristics of a freshwater mussel, and distributional maps as an aid to freshwater mussel identification.

In a recently published press release, Tierra Curry, a senior scientist with the Center for Biological Diversity was quoted as saying, “The health of freshwater mussels directly reflects river health, so protecting the places where these mussels live will help all of us who rely on clean water. This is especially important now, when we see growing threats to clean water from climate change, agriculture and other sources.”

Princeton Hydro is committed to protecting water quality, restoring habitats, and managing natural resources. Read about some of our recent projects and contact us to discuss how we can help you.

To learn more about freshwater mussels, check out this video from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service:

UPDATE: The Columbia Dam Is Coming Down

It’s happening! The Columbia Dam on the Paulins Kill in Northern New Jersey is finally coming down thanks to a successful collaboration between The Nature Conservancy, American Rivers, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NJDEP Division of Fish and Wildlife Service, and Princeton Hydro. The first cut on the main dam wall was made just two weeks ago, and the water has started flowing downstream as the concrete is slowly being removed by the contractors RiverLogic Solutions and SumCo Eco-Contracting.

“In New Jersey, successful dam removal projects are often the result of partnerships between nonprofit organizations, federal and state agencies, consultants, and others working together toward the common goal of river restoration,” exclaimed Dr. Laura Craig, Director of River Restoration, American Rivers. “The first day of dam demolition is always a joyous occasion for project partners, but I was especially happy to see the river flowing through the breached Columbia Dam for the first time after working so intensely on this project for the last few years.”

Princeton Hydro has been involved with the engineering and restoration design from the beginning, so we’re very excited to report on this major update.  Our team of engineers and ecologists studied the feasibility of removal as requested by American Rivers in partnership with the New Jersey chapter of The Nature Conservancy.  We investigated, designed, and prepared the necessary permits for the removal of this dam. And, now we’ve been subsequently been hired to provide construction administration services during the removal process, which means we get to see the dam come down firsthand, piece by piece!

“It is truly amazing and exciting to finally see the main and remnant dams come down, as I have been involved in this restoration effort since the feasibility stage,” said Kelly Klein, Senior Project Manager, Princeton Hydro. “I am so honored to be part of this dynamic team and to collaborate with our project partners during every stage of this dam removal.”

Geoff Goll, Princeton Hydro and Beth Styler Barry, The Nature Conservancy on site August 3, 2018. Photo credit: Laura Craig, American Rivers

“On Friday, August 3rd 2018, we began demolition of the 300 foot-long, 18 foot-high Columbia Dam. The Paulins Kill will run freely to meet the Delaware River for the first time in 109 years,” said New Jersey Nature Conservancy’s Beth Styler Barry. “The benefits of reconnecting these two freshwater ecosystems will be immediate and impact creatures that live in and near the stream, as well as people who come out to paddle, fish or enjoy the wildlife. Dam Removal projects are exciting, ecologically important and also a challenge, this project is a good example of partners coming together to get a great restoration project done.”

Because this is a big deal, we want to keep *YOU* updated on what’s happening from the field. Moving forward, we’ll post weekly blogs with scenes from the site.  Here’s a snapshot of what’s been happening over the last last two weeks:

August 1, 2018. Photo credit: Casey Schrading, Princeton Hydro

In order to make the first saw cut into the dam, Princeton Hydro and RiverLogic Solutions first identified the locations of the drill holes. These drill holes are used to feed the diamond wire through the dam for saw cutting.

August 1, 2018. Photo credit: Casey Schrading, Princeton Hydro

The crew placed the saw cutter machine on the staging area on top of the apron and prepared for the cut.

August 3, 2018. Photo credit: Princeton Hydro

In order to create a notch in the dam, the crew supplemented the saw cutting with hammering.

August 3, 2018. Photo Credit: The Nature Conservancy, Columbia Dam Volunteer Drone Team

August 3, 2018. Photo credit: Erik Sildorff, Delaware Riverkeeper Network

August 7, 2018. Photo credit: Casey Schrading, Princeton Hydro

Since the high water level was now higher than the bottom of the breach, water is able to flow in and over the notched section.

August 14, 2018. Photo credit: RiverLogic Solutions

Because of high flows of water from recent storm events, the dam breach is being widened to allow for larger flows of water to move downstream during high flow events. 

Additionally, a few weeks ago we reported on the lowering of the water levels and removal of the remnant dam downstream (below).

PHOTOS: Columbia Dam Removal

Since then, the remnant dam has been completed removed and the area has been stabilized.

July 23, 2018. Photo credit: Casey Schrading, Princeton Hydro

Now, the water can freely flow through this section of the Paulins Kill.

And, in case you missed it, we celebrated the commencement of the Columbia Dam removal with NJDEP’s Commissioner Catherine McCabe and our project partners. Full story below:

Celebrating the Columbia Dam Removal

Princeton Hydro has designed, permitted, and overseen the reconstruction, repair, and removal of a dozens of small and large dams in the Northeast. To learn more about our fish passage and dam removal engineering services, visitbit.ly/DamBarrier.

Lithuania Hosts First-ever Dam Removal Workshop Feat. Princeton Hydro Expert

Lithuania Hosts its First-Ever
Dam Removal Workshop

Princeton Hydro’s Laura Wildman Invited to Present

History was recently made in Lithuania with the occurrence of the first-ever dam removal workshop held in the country. Experts throughout the world convened at the Ministry of Environment in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, to lead discussions on a variety of topics related to dam removal and river rehabilitation.  They covered the current state of affairs regarding Lithuanian dams and showcased the Dam Removal Europe (DRE) initiative, a new effort aimed at restoring rivers in Europe.

The workshop was the brainchild of Lithuanian environmental activist Karolina Gurjazkaitė. She read about the DRE campaign and was so inspired by the initiative, she contacted DRE representatives about organizing the workshop. Her goals in organizing the first-ever dam removal workshop in Lithuania were to build awareness around the importance of river restoration, call attention to the many outdated, unmaintained, and unnecessary dams throughout Lithuania, and ultimately inspire positive changes in the way of dam removals and river rehabilitation.

“I am very excited, not only about the workshop, but also about the ‘side effects’…already created,” said Karolina. “People are gaining hopes and enthusiasm… This workshop may have really powerful outcomes!”

Karolina gathered a diverse group of workshop attendees, comprised of government officials (including the Vice-Minister of Environment of Lithuania), university professors (primarily specializing in dam safety and hydropower development), local environmental advocates and NGO volunteers, researchers, and students.

Presenters during the workshop included scientists, engineers, communication experts, planners, activists, and Princeton Hydro’s New England Regional Office Director and Fisheries Engineer Laura Wildman, P.E.

Presentations covered a wide variety of topics, including:

  • Policy and current situation in Europe: Pao Fernández Garrido of World Fish Migration Foundation, Spain presented on DRE findings related to policy and the current dam removal situation in Europe.

  • Research: Rachel Bowes from Karlstad University, Sweden spoke about current state of affairs with Swedish dam removal efforts and the research they are currently carrying out.

  • Book presentation: Herman Wanningen of World Fish Migration Foundation, Netherlands presented the new book, From Sea to Source 2.0, which is focused on tackling the challenges of restoring fish migration in rivers around the world and is available for free download.

  • Technical issues: Laura Wildman, PE, who has over 20 years of experience on dam removal, presented on the most important technical aspects when carrying out a barrier demolition.

On day two of the workshop, participants were invited to take part in field visits to five dam sites. Each of the five dams all presented their own unique challenges in terms of the ability to remove them. The site visits provided a deeper look into the challenges that will need to be addressed when forging ahead with a Lithuanian river restoration initiative.

The workshop proved to be instrumental in identifying key challenges and next steps in building a successful country-wide river rehabilitation initiative. One of the key takeaways from the workshop is the need for a more robust understanding of Lithuanian-specific rules and regulations that classify a dam removal project as either viable or not viable.

“Not only has there never been a dam removal workshop held in Lithuania, to date, a dam removal has never been completed in Lithuania, at least none that have been documented and none for environmental restoration reasons,” said Laura. “It’s clear that we still have a lot to explore and discover, but I am so thrilled to have been a part of this workshop. It was a very positive first step in the right direction, and I’m looking forward to watching and helping this initiative flourish.”

To learn more about Princeton Hydro’s dam removal and river restoration initiatives, go here.

 

Celebrating the Columbia Dam Removal

A view of the Columbia Dam at the beginning of the removal process.

On a bright, sunny day in Warren County, Princeton Hydro celebrated the Columbia Dam Removal Project with New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) Commissioner Catherine McCabe, The New Jersey Nature Conservancy (event organizer), American Rivers, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), NJDEP Division of Fish and Wildlife Service, RiverLogic Solutions, and SumCo Eco-Contracting.

Beth Styler-Barry, River Restoration Manager, New Jersey Nature Conservancy

Overlooking the soon-to-be removed, century-old, hydroelectric Columbia Dam, key stakeholders, including Princeton Hydro’s President Geoffrey Goll, P.E. and New Jersey Nature Conservancy’s Director Barbara Brummer, remarked on the success of the project, collaborative team efforts, and future benefits to the Paulins Kill habitat.

NJ Nature Conservancy’s River Restoration Manager, Beth Styler-Barry thanked project funders including NJDEP’s Office of Natural Resource Restoration, USFWS’s Fish Passage Program, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation’s Bring Back The Natives program, Natural Resources Conservation Service’s Regional Conservation Partnership Program, New Jersey Corporate Wetlands Restoration Partnership, Leavens Foundation, Tom’s of Maine, and Nature Conservancy members and donors.

“We made a commitment early-on to a 10-year monitoring and measurement plan. The removal of Columbia Dam is an opportunity to gain new knowledge and generate data that builds the case for this type of restoration. We’ll be looking at everything from mussels to temperature to geomorphological changes to increasing our targeted efficiencies. We’re also going to use images taken from repeated drone flyovers to look closely at changes in topography,” said Styler-Barry.

NJDEP Commissioner Catherine McCabe with NJ Division of Fish & Wildlife and NJDEP officials.

NJDEP Commissioner Catherine McCabe added, “The Columbia Dam is ranked in the top 5% of the nearly 14,000 dams that were assessed for priority. It will give us one of the most bangs for our buck in terms of fish and native species that we’ll be able to bring back up here.” She added, “This is exactly what Natural Resources Damages funds should be used for, and we are thrilled to see it come to fruition.”

Geoffrey Goll, P.E., President, Princeton Hydro

Back in the day, this dam structure was a marvel of engineering. Because concrete was very expensive during the time of construction, a patented, innovative “ransom hollow” design was used, which means it has a hollow center with series of doorways underneath the dam, explained Geoffrey Goll, P.E., President of Princeton Hydro. However, sustainability and climate change are very important issues today and must be taken into consideration for the life-cycle of a dam.

“Removal is a logical step in the history of this dam. Dam removals are the most impactful restorations. They provide the most ecological uplift and improvement for rivers,” Goll stated.

For Princeton Hydro, this project involved every discipline we have in the firm: civil engineering, fishery biology, wetland science, hydraulics, geotechnical engineering, and regulatory work. We were contracted by American Rivers to investigate, design, and permit for the removal of this dam for the New Jersey Nature Conservancy. Our team of engineers and ecologists studied the feasibility of removal by collecting sediment samples, performed bioassay tests, and conducted a hydraulic analysis of upstream and downstream conditions. Currently, we are providing construction administration services during the removal process. This project is a great example of our ability to complete multi-disciplinary projects in-house.

Project partners ready for the first hammer with the celebratory dynamite and sledge hammers.

At the end of the press conference, project partners celebrated the anticipation of the “first hammer” in the near future with an imitation dynamite siren and plastic sledge hammers. It was truly a keystone moment for everyone involved in this project.

The remnant dam downstream has already been removed and the main dam is due to be removed very soon. Check out our previous story with a series of photos documenting this first-step in the overall dam removal process: bit.ly/ColumbiaDamRemoval. Stay tuned for photos during the main dam removal process too.

Princeton Hydro has designed, permitted, and overseen the reconstruction, repair, and removal of a dozens of small and large dams in the Northeast. To learn more about our fish passage and dam removal engineering services, visitbit.ly/DamBarrier.

PHOTOS: Columbia Dam Removal

VIDEO: “Columbia Lake Dam when the water level was 18 inches to 2 feet lower”
Video courtesy of Matt Hencheck

In Northwest New Jersey on the Paulins Kill, an important tributary to the Delaware River, the century-old hydroelectric Columbia Dam is actively being removed. Princeton Hydro was contracted by American Rivers to investigate, design, and apply for permits for the removal of this dam for the New Jersey chapter of The Nature Conservancy. Our team of engineers and ecologists studied the feasibility of removal by collecting sediment samples, performing bioassay tests, and conducting a hydraulic analysis of upstream and downstream conditions. We’re excited to report that the Columbia Dam removal has officially commenced!

The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection started draining water from Columbia Lake a few weeks ago, which was the first step in removing the dam. Princeton Hydro has subsequently been contracted by The Nature Conservancy to provide construction administration services.  Photos below show the water at lowered levels at the impoundments.

“Dewatering Impoundment” Photo by Princeton Hydro

“An aerial drone snapshot when water levels were down about 5 feet at the upper impoundment” Photo courtesy of the New Jersey Chapter of The Nature Conservancy

Last week, the first hammer hit the wall of a downstream dam remnant, officially starting the removal process.

“The first hammer”  Photo courtesy of Dale Bentz, RiverLogic Solutions

The dam removal process will last a few weeks, as the contractor actively knocks down the thick concrete wall.

“Pressure and time”  Photo courtesy of Dale Bentz, RiverLogic Solutions

“Halfway there”  Photo courtesy of Dale Bentz, RiverLogic Solutions

Once the dam is removed, there is a high probability that populations of American Shad and River Herring will be restored. It may also enhance American Eel migration. As a coldwater fishery, this reach also has significant potential for trout species, as well as Smallmouth Bass.

(Top) Before: Photo of the Columbia Dam before construction. (Bottom) After: Princeton Hydro’s rendering of what the river will look like once the dam is removed.

“It is very exciting to be a part of such a monumental effort for the restoration of the Paulins Kill. This river, once a major migration route for diadromous fish like American Shad, will once again be a nursery for this Delaware River icon,” said Geoffrey Goll, PE, President and co-founder of Princeton Hydro. “The removal of these dams will also restore the functions and values of a riparian corridor and floodplain, eliminate costs to the taxpayer for the maintenance of a dam and lake, and provide additional riverine recreational opportunities. I expect to see the same resilience and positive impact to the Delaware River as the recent barrier removals on another major NJ tributary, the Musconetcong River. It is a win-win for NJ, and with The Nature Conservancy at the helm and expert guidance from American Rivers, it has been an experience of a career.”

This project could not have been possible without the hard work and dedication of the following partner organizations: The Nature Conservancy of New Jersey, American Rivers, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, RiverLogic Solutions, NJDEP Division of Fish and Wildlife Service, and SumCo EcoContracting.

Princeton Hydro has designed, permitted, and overseen the reconstruction, repair, and removal of a dozens of small and large dams in the Northeast. To learn more about our fish passage and dam removal engineering services, visitbit.ly/DamBarrier.


This video from 2016 features the Nature Conservancy’s New Jersey State Director Barbara Brummer, Ph.D. speaking on the Columbia Dam removal. Video credit: NJ Herald.

Dam Removal on the Moosup River

Moosup River

The Moosup River is a beautiful 30-mile-long, trout river flowing through Connecticut and Rhode Island, eventually emptying into the Quinebaug River.

Several dams, most originally built in the 1800s or early 1900s, impeded the river’s natural flow, impaired habitat, fragmented the river system, and prevented fish from swimming upstream to their native spawning grounds.

In 2013, American Rivers, CTDEEP Fisheries, and Natural Resources Conservation Service began collaborating on the removal of multiple dams and remnant dams as part of a larger project to restore connectivity to the Moosup River in the Town of Plainfield. Princeton Hydro and RiverLogic Solutions were contracted to provide design-build and permitting services.

As part of this larger multi-year effort, five dams are planned for removal from the Moosup River. The most downstream barrier, the Hale Factory Dam was removed in 2014. The remnants of the toppled Griswold Rubber Dam were removed in 2015. In 2017, the removal of Brunswick Mill Dam #1 was completed. And, two more dams, downstream of New Brunswick Mill Dam #1, are currently under consideration for removal. When fully completed, the Moosup River Dam Removal Project will reconnect fish habitats along 6.9 miles of the Moosup River.

 

Hale Factory Dam

The Hale Factory Dam was constructed of a boulder core capped in a one-foot-thick concrete layer. The dam was partially breached as the concrete cap had deteriorated severely over the years, allowing flow to pass between boulders and allowing the normal pool elevation to drop substantially from its former design height.

The resource delineation conducted on site identified a vernal pool with an 18 inch culvert outlet that discharged 90 feet upstream of the dam. To preserve this ecological resource on the site, the vernal pool was not disturbed during the dam removal.

Princeton Hydro provided a field assessment, sediment characterization and analysis, final design and permit application package for the full removal of the Hale Factory Dam. Full removal of the dam entailed demolition and removal of the concrete, and re-use of the natural cobbles and boulders from the dam to create in-stream habitat features. Once completed, the river and its boulders appeared as if placed by nature itself, with the former dam’s presence indicated only by the age-old lichen covered field stone walls leading up to the banks.

 

Griswold Rubber Dam

The Griswold Rubber Dam was in a gravel-cobble reach of the river approximately 80 feet wide in the Village of Moosup and was adjacent to the 1992 expansion of the Griswold Rubber factory.  At one time, the dam stood approximately 10 feet high and 150 feet long. The dam was constructed of a large segmented concrete slab that had since toppled over and was lying nearly flat on the river bed in multiple sections. The dam structure, having failed, served no useful purpose. Despite being toppled, the dam still presented a deterrent to the effective movement of aquatic organisms at normal to low flows and was therefore worthy of complete removal to restore river connectivity.

Princeton Hydro conducted an initial field investigation with RiverLogic Solutions to gain insights regarding the construction approach. Princeton Hydro then followed-up with a more detailed assessment of river bed sediment, geomorphic conditions, the likely riverine response, construction access, and other design related issues that were incorporated into design plans and permit applications. The restoration design Princeton Hydro developed aimed to remove the partial barrier to fish passage with as little disturbance to surrounding infrastructure and resources as possible.

 

Brunswick Mill Dam #1

This dilapidated timber crib dam stood approximately 4-feet high and spanned the channel at approximately 130 feet. The timbers ranged from 1.5 to 2.5 feet in diameter and over 20 feet in length; 50 were integrated into the dam. The timber crib was filled with gravel and other debris, and the gravel substrate extended 50 feet upstream. The original dam was significantly higher, but the timber crib spillway deteriorated and gradually collapsed over time and only a portion of the structure remained.

For this project, Princeton Hydro completed sediment investigation, sampling and analysis; hydrologic and hydraulic analysis; and provided design and engineering for full removal of the dam. Princeton Hydro contracted with an archeologist / industrial historian, and together closely observed the dam deconstruction to observe and record how the timber crib had been assembled. Multiple types of iron pins and wooden pegs revealed how the dam had been repaired over the years – findings, old maps, and photos were incorporated into a historical report filed with the state historic preservation office. Princeton Hydro coordinated to have the old timbers salvaged for eventual re-use. Removing the Brunswick Mill Dam #1 was a continuation of the large scale Moosup River restoration effort and paved the way for the potential removal of two more dams downstream in the coming years.

“When a dam is breached and taken out, the tangible results are very quickly noticeable,” said Paul Woodworth, Princeton Hydro Fluvial Geomorphologist. “The return of migratory fish is a very strong indicator of the ecological benefits of dam removal – sometimes after a removal you can see fish immediately swimming upstream. Removing dams also improves safety in nearby communities, reestablishes the natural flow of sediment, improves water quality, provides new recreation opportunities, and restores habitats for fish and wildlife.”

Click here to read more about Princeton Hydro’s engineering services for the restoration and removal of dams.

New Book Aims to Protect and Restore Fish Migrations

Rivers are a critical natural resource and an essential element for the health and survival of billions of people and countless species. Flourishing populations of migratory fish are an important indicator of a healthy, coastally connected river and a robust aquatic ecosystem as a whole. Migratory fish help to maintain a balanced food web, support productive river systems, and provide income for people around the world.

Yet many migratory fish species are severely threatened primarily due to man-made obstacles like dams and weirs, which disrupt the natural flow of rivers and prevent fish migration. When fish can’t reach their habitat, they can’t reproduce and maintain their populations.

Photo Credit: “From Sea to Source 2.0”

A new book, titled From Sea to Source 2.0, explores the challenges that lie behind restoration of fish migration in rivers around the world and provides a practical guide to promoting the protection and restoration of fish migration. The book is a unique collaboration of over 100 international fisheries professionals and supported by river managers, governments, research institutes and NGOs including World Wildlife Fund and The Nature Conservancy. Geared toward practitioners, but also a wonderful resource for the general public, the book is comprised of inspiring stories from nearly every continent on the planet. Click here to download it for free.

“Ultimately our ambition is to contribute in a positive way to making a better world and a positive difference for migratory fish, nature and humans on local and global levels by inspiring new initiatives for and with people all around the world,” as stated on www.fromseatosource.com. “Whether the challenge is simply to increase access to spawning habitats through connectivity improvements for salmon, or to maintain the livelihoods for hundreds of millions of people dependent upon fish and fisheries in the great rivers of Asia, Africa and South America, we hoped our book would help to achieve these goals.”

Princeton Hydro’s Dam Removal Expert Laura Wildman, P.E. and Fluvial Geomorphologist Paul Woodworth are proud contributors to the book, helping to write the dam removal chapter, creating a dam removal flow chart for the book, and providing multiple photos utilized in the book. Princeton Hydro is also listed as a contributing sponsor.

“We’re so proud to be part of this incredible project with so many partners globally,” said Wildman. “We envision that this book will provide a valuable resource and inspiration for those in countries and regions where the importance of restoring riverine connectivity is newly gaining momentum. We hope it will help emphasize the importance of finding balanced and environmentally informed solutions when proposing additional utilization of public trust resources such as rivers.”

Approximately 40% of all fish species in the world reside in freshwater ecosystems, contributing economic and ecological benefits and value. It’s critical that we support efforts that aim to protect migratory fish species, reconnect rivers, sustain fish passage, and preserve free-flowing rivers through removing unnecessary dams, reconnecting floodplains, managing our water use, and managing hydropower for sustainable rivers.

Education and awareness building are key first steps in protecting rivers. From Sea to Source 2.0 seeks to inform, educate and inspire those who want to know more about how to meet the challenges of restoring fish migration in rivers around the world.  The book is regarded as a crucial resource in the ongoing fight to protect and preserve the enormous value of our waterways.

Get your free copy here.

Princeton Hydro has designed, permitted, and overseen the reconstruction, repair, and removal of a dozens of small and large dams in the Northeast. To learn more about our fish passage and dam removal engineering services, visit: bit.ly/DamBarrier.