Levee Inspections Along the Elizabeth River

Ursino Dam on the Elizabeth River in Union County, New Jersey is one of the sites Princeton Hydro inspected for flood control, ensuring the system is providing the level of protection it was designed to deliver.

By Brendon Achey, Princeton Hydro’s Lead Geologist; Soils Laboratory Manager; Project Manager

Located 20 miles southwest of New York City, the City of Elizabeth, New Jersey, is situated along the Elizabeth River. For the city’s 125,000 residents, living along the river has many benefits, but the benefits are not without flood risk. In order to manage the risk associated with potential flooding, a series of levees and floodwalls were installed along the banks of the Elizabeth River. A levee is an embankment that is constructed to prevent overflow from a river. They are a crucial element for protecting cities from disastrous flooding, and as such they require periodic inspections to ensure that all components are functioning properly.

Princeton Hydro was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York District (USACE NYD) to perform rigorous flood control project inspections (i.e., “Periodic Inspections”) for the four levee systems located along the Elizabeth River.  For this project, our team inspected over 17,000 linear feet of levee embankment and 2,500 linear feet of floodwall.

Levee systems are comprised of components which collectively provide flood risk management to a defined area. These components can include levees, structural floodwalls, closure gates, pumping stations, culverts, and interior drainage works. These components are interconnected and collectively ensure the protection of development and/or infrastructure that is situated within a floodplain. Failure of just one critical component within a system could constitute an overall system failure. During Hurricane Katrina, for example, dozens of levees were destroyed, leaving the Louisiana coast with billions of dollars in damage and over one thousand lives lost.

Periodic inspections are necessary in order to ensure a levee system will perform as expected. They are also needed to identify deficiencies in the levee, or areas that need monitoring or immediate repair. Critically important maintenance activities include continuously assessing the integrity of the levee system to identify changes over time, collecting information to help inform decisions about future actions, and providing the public with information about the levees on which they rely.

Levee Inspection Process

Periodic inspections are extremely comprehensive and include three key steps: data collection, field inspection, and development of a final report.

Data Collection

Prior to conducting field inspections, Princeton Hydro’s engineers evaluated the Elizabeth River levee system’s documented design criteria. This evaluation was conducted to assess the ability of each feature and the overall system to function as authorized, and also to identify any potential need to update the system design. Princeton Hydro teamed with HDR to carry out the inspections. A comprehensive review of existing data on operation and maintenance, previous inspections, emergency action plans, and flood fighting records was also performed.

Field Inspection

The Princeton Hydro field inspection team consisted of geotechnical, water resource, mechanical, structural, and electrical engineers. Detailed inspections were performed on each segment of each levee system.  This included the detailed inspection and documentation of over 17,000 linear feet of levee embankment, over 2,500 linear feet of floodwall, four pumping stations, 29 interior drainage structures, five closure gates, and various other encroachments and facilities. Princeton Hydro identified, evaluated, and rated the state of each of these system elements. As part of this field inspection task, Princeton Hydro utilized a state-of-the-art tablet and GIS technology in order to field-locate inspection points and record item ratings. This digital collection of data helps expedite data processing and ensures higher levels of accuracy.

Development of Final Report

Princeton Hydro prepared a Periodic Inspection Report for each of the four levee systems inspected, which included the results of the design document review, methods and results of the field inspection, a summary of areas/items of concern, a preliminary engineering assessment of causes of distress or abnormal conditions, and recommendations for remedial actions to address identified concerns. Final report development included briefing the USACE Levee Safety Officer (LSO) on our inspection findings, assigned ratings, and recommendations.

Levee inspections are vital to the longevity of levee systems and the safety of the communities they protect. By providing the municipalities with detailed inspection reports, effective repair and management programs can be designed and implemented efficiently. This helps to ensure the levee systems are providing the level of protection that they were designed to deliver.

Princeton Hydro’s Geoscience and Water Resource Engineering teams perform levee and dam inspections throughout the Mid-Atlantic and New England Regions. For more info, visit: http://bit.ly/PHEngineering

Brendon Achey provides a wide range of technical skills and services for Princeton Hydro. His responsibilities include: project management, preparation and quality control of technical deliverables, geotechnical investigations and analysis, groundwater hydrology, soil sampling plan design and implementation, and site characterization. He is responsible for managing the daily operations of the AASHTO accredited and USACE validated soil testing laboratory. In addition to laboratory testing and analysis, Brendon is responsible for analyzing results in support of geotechnical and stormwater management design evaluations. This may include bearing capacity and settlement analysis of both shallow and deep foundations, retaining wall design, and recommendations for stormwater management practices.

Understanding and Implementing Green Infrastructure

By Tucker Simmons and Dr. Clay Emerson, PE, CFM

People generally think of green infrastructure as an eco-friendly way to handle stormwater runoff. While many green infrastructure elements are planned and managed specifically for stormwater control, the capabilities and benefits are far reaching. In this piece, we’ll provide an in-depth look at all that green infrastructure encompasses, best practices, and real-world examples of green infrastructure projects in action.

WHAT IS GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE?

Defined as an approach to water management that protects, restores, or mimics the natural water cycle, green infrastructure can be implemented for large scale projects and small scale projects alike.

Unlike conventional, or “gray” infrastructure, green infrastructure uses vegetation, soil, and other natural components to manage stormwater and generate healthier urban environments. Green infrastructure systems mimic natural hydrology to take advantage of interception, evapotranspiration and infiltration of stormwater runoff at its source. Examples include permeable pavers, rain gardens, bioretention basins, rain barrels, and tree boxes.

WHY IS GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE BENEFICIAL?

Green infrastructure provides various benefits, including cleaning and conserving water, reducing flooding, improving public health, providing jobs, beautifying neighborhoods, supporting wildlife and providing economic benefits at both the larger community and individual household level. Let’s take a closer look at some of the primary benefits:

Prevents Flooding: By absorbing and slowing the flow of water, green infrastructure can reduce the burden on storm sewer systems and mitigate localized flooding.

Saves Money: While some green infrastructure designs may require the same or greater initial investment than conventional strategies, green design methods provide a big return in reducing costs over the long-term.

Improves Water Quality: Through natural absorption and filtration processes, green infrastructure significantly reduces stormwater runoff volume, decreases the pollutants and particulates within the stormwater, and improves the quality of the runoff flowing into surrounding water bodies.

Improves Air Quality: Green infrastructure techniques like tree boxes, green roofs and vegetative barriers have long been associated with improving air quality. Urban tree boxes help shade surfaces, effectively putting moisture into the air while reducing greenhouse gases. Trees mitigate heat and air pollution, both cooling and cleaning the air.

Enhances Aesthetics: Many green infrastructure practices utilize native plants and trees to improve runoff absorption and reduce stormwater pollution. This vegetation can provide a sound barrier or privacy screen for properties, and enhances the overall aesthetics of the surrounding environment. 

Increases Property Values: Research shows that property values increase when trees and other vegetation are present in urban areas. Planting trees can increase property values by as much as 15%.

LARGE-SCALE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE IMPLEMENTATION:

With the use of proper design techniques, green infrastructure can be applied almost anywhere and is especially beneficial in urban areas. In developed environments, unmanaged stormwater creates two major issues: one related to the volume and timing of stormwater runoff (flooding) and the other related to pollutants the water carries. Green Infrastructure in urban environments can recharge groundwater, decrease runoff, improve water quality, and restore aquatic habitats while controlling flooding.

Across the United States, more than 700 cities utilize combined sewer systems (CSS) to collect and convey both sanitary sewage and stormwater to wastewater treatment facilities. During dry weather, all wastewater flows are conveyed to a sewage treatment plant where it receives appropriate treatment before it is discharged to the waterway. However, during heavy rainfall or significant snowmelt, the additional flow exceeds the capacity of the system resulting in a discharge of untreated sewage and stormwater to the waterway; this discharge is referred to as a combined sewer overflow (CSOs). For many cities with CSS, CSOs remain one of the greatest challenges to meeting water quality standards. Green infrastructure practices mimic natural hydrologic processes to reduce the quantity and/or rate of stormwater flows into the CSS.

New Jersey, as part of the 2012 USEPA’s Integrated Municipal Stormwater and Wastewater Planning Approach Framework, utilized green infrastructure as one of the main components in managing its CSS and reducing CSOs. Because of the flexibility of green infrastructure in design performance, it can reduce and mitigate localized flooding and sewer back-ups while also reducing CSOs. An integrated plan that addresses both overflows and flooding can often be more cost-effective than addressing these issues separately. New Jersey, in addition to meeting its CSO reduction goals, is using green infrastructure throughout the sewershed to build resilience to large storm events and improve stormwater management.

Stormwater planters installed by the Philadelphia Water Department

Philadelphia takes advantage of numerous green stormwater infrastructure programs such as Green Streets, Green Schools, and Green Parking. There are a wide variety of green infrastructure practices that Philadelphia is using to decrease stormwater runoff throughout the entire city. After just five years of implementing the Green City, Green Waterplan, Philadelphia has reduced the stormwater pollution entering its waterways by 85%. Using over 1,100 green stormwater tools (i.e. CSO, living landscapes, permeable surfaces, etc.), in just one year, Philadelphia was able to prevent over 1.7 billion gallons of polluted water from entering their rivers and streams.

New York City is using a green infrastructure program, led by its Department of Environmental Protection, that utilizes multiple green infrastructure practices to promote the natural movement of water while preventing polluted stormwater runoff from entering sewer systems and surrounding waterbodies. While attaining this goal, the green infrastructure also provides improvements in water and air quality, as well as improves the aesthetics of the streets and neighborhoods. According to the NYC Green Infrastructure Plan, “By 2030, we estimate that New Yorkers will receive between $139 million and $418 million in additional benefits such as reduced energy bills, increased property values, and improved health.”

SMALL-SCALE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE IMPLEMENTATION:

Green infrastructure techniques are extremely beneficial on every scale. Residential homes and neighborhoods can benefit from the implementation of green infrastructure in more ways than many people realize. There are a wide variety of green infrastructure projects that can be completed with a relatively small time and financial investment. Many of us at Princeton Hydro have incorporated green infrastructure practices into our homes and properties. Here’s a look at some of those projects in action:

Dr. Steve Souza, a founding principal of Princeton Hydro, installed rain gardens throughout his property utilizing native, drought-resistant, pollinator-attracting plants. The rain gardens are designed to capture and infiltrate rainwater runoff from the roof, driveway, patio and lawn.

Princeton Hydro’s President Geoffrey Goll, P.E. built an infiltration trench in his backyard. An infiltration trench is a type of best management practice (BMP) that is used to manage stormwater runoff, prevent flooding and downstream erosion, and improve water quality in adjacent waterways. 

And, in the front yard, Geoffrey installed a variety of wildflower plantings.

MUNICIPAL TOOLKIT

An interactive website toolkit was recently launched by New Jersey Future to help municipalities across the state incorporate green infrastructure projects into their communities. For this project, Princeton Hydro’s engineers and scientists provided real-world examples integrating green infrastructure into development in order to bring to light the benefits and importance of investing in green infrastructure at the local level. The New Jersey Green Infrastructure Municipal Toolkit provides expert information on planning, implementing, and sustaining green infrastructure to manage stormwater. This toolkit acts as a one-stop resource for community leaders who want to sustainably manage stormwater, reduce localized flooding, and improve water quality.

GET STARTED

Since its inception, Princeton Hydro has been a leader in innovative, cost-effective, and environmentally sound stormwater management systems. Long before the term “green infrastructure” was part of the design community’s lexicon, the firm’s engineers were integrating stormwater management with natural systems to fulfill such diverse objectives as flood control, water quality protection, and pollutant reduction. Princeton Hydro has developed regional nonpoint source pollutant budgets for over 100 waterways. The preparation of stormwater management plans and design of stormwater management systems for pollutant reduction is an integral part of many of the firm’s projects.

Interested in working with us on your next Green Infrastructure project? Contact us here.


Tucker Simmons, Water Resources Intern

Tucker is a Civil and Environmental Engineering major at Rowan University focusing on Water Resources Engineering. He is the President and player of the Rowan University Men’s DII Ice Hockey Team. His Junior Clinic experience includes the study of Bio-Cemented sand and the Remote Sensing of Landfill Fires. In the future, Tucker hopes to work on creating a more sustainable environment. Tucker enjoys playing ice hockey, being with friends and family, and exercising.

 

Clay Emerson, Senior Project Manager

Clay’s areas of expertise include hydrologic and hydraulic analysis, stormwater management and infiltration, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, watershed modeling, groundwater hydrology/modeling, and water quality and quantity monitoring at both the individual site and watershed scales. His educational and work experience includes a substantial amount of crossover between engineering and environmental science applications. He has specific expertise in the field of stormwater infiltration and has conducted extensive research on the NPS pollution control and water quantity control performance of stormwater BMPs. He regularly disseminates his monitoring results through numerous peer-reviewed journal publications, magazine articles, and presentations.

 

*FREE* Download: Using Flood Models to Mitigate Flood Risk

Back in September, NEIWPCC offered a free research webinar on modeling and flood mitigation recommendations for a forested and urban Hudson River tributary watershed. The webinar looked at the Moodna Creek Watershed and Flood Mitigation Assessment and described how flood models were used to inform recommendations for reducing and mitigating existing and anticipated flood risk. This free webinar was hosted by our Environmental Scientist & GIS Manager, Christiana Pollack, GISP, CFM, and Jessica Jahre, CFM, AICP, a Planner with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.

Pollack and Jahre, authors of the assessment, described how they used flood models to inform recommendations for reducing and mitigating existing/anticipated flood risk in the Moodna Creek Watershed. The flood mitigation assessment was conducted by Princeton Hydro and GreenVest, and funded by NEIWPCC through the New York Department of Environmental Conservation’s Hudson River Estuary Program.

If you missed the webinar, but are still interested in flood mitigation and this study, you can download a PDF of the Powerpoint below. With informative graphics and intriguing photos, this presentation will introduce you to flood mitigation strategies and techniques for many different needs.Princeton Hydro specializes in flood planning, policy, analysis, design and risk mitigation services.  To learn more our floodplain management services, visit: bit.ly/floodmanagement

Two-Part Blog Series: Flood Assessment, Mitigation & Management

In this two part blog series, we showcase our work in the Moodna Creek Watershed in order to explore some of the concepts and methods used to estimate flood risk for existing conditions and the year 2050 and develop a flood management strategy (Part One), and traditional engineering and natural systems solutions used to manage and reduce flood risk (Part Two).

Part One: Flood Assessment & Mitigation Analysis in the Moodna Creek Watershed

The greater Moodna Creek watershed covers 180 square miles of eastern Orange County, NY. The watershed includes 22 municipalities and hundreds of streams before joining the Hudson River. This region has seen tremendous growth in recent years with the expansion of regional transit networks and critical infrastructure.

The Moodna Creek watershed can be split into two sub-basins — the Upper Moodna Creek and the Lower Moodna Creek. In the span of 15 months, Hurricane Irene, Tropical Storm Lee, and Hurricane Sandy each have caused significant flooding throughout the Moodna Creek watershed, damaging public facilities, roadways, and private properties. Both sub-basin communities have noted a concern about increased flood risk as more development occurs.

As global temperatures rise, climate models are predicting more intense rainfall events. And, the flood risk for communities along waterways — like the Moodna Creek watershed — will likely increase as time passes. In order to understand existing and future risk from flood events in this flood-prone area, a flood risk management strategy needed to be developed. The strategy uses a cost-benefit analysis to review the feasibility of each measure and the overall impact in reducing flood risks.

With funds provided from a 2016 grant program sponsored by the New England Interstate Waters Pollution Control Commission (NEIWPCC) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation’s (NYCDEC) Hudson River Estuary Program (HEP), Princeton Hydro along with a variety of project partners completed a flood assessment and flood mitigation analysis specific to the Lower Moodna Creek watershed.

Let’s take a closer look at our work with the Lower Moodna Creek watershed, and explore some of the methods used to estimate flood risk and develop a flood management strategy:

Lower Moodna Creek Watershed Flood Assessment & Analysis

The primary Lower Moodna Creek project goals were to assess flood vulnerabilities and propose flood mitigation solutions that consider both traditional engineering strategies and natural systems solution approaches (land preservation, wetland/forest restoration, green infrastructure and green water management). The project team focused on ways to use the natural environment to reduce risk.  Instead of strictly focusing on just Moonda Creek, the team took a holistic approach which included all areas that drain into the river too. These analyses were incorporated into a Flood Assessment Master Plan and Flood Mitigation Plan, which will serve as a road map to reducing flooding issues within the watershed.

Managing Flood Risk

The first step in managing flood risk is to understand what type of exposure the communities face. The Moodna Creek project modeled flooding within the watershed during normal rain events, extreme rain events, and future rain events with two primary goals in mind:

Visual assessment being conducted in flood-prone areas of Moodna Creek Watershed.

  • Assess the facilities, infrastructure, and urban development that are at risk from flooding along the Moodna Creek and its tributaries within the study area.
  • Develop a series of hydrologic and hydraulic models to assess the extent of potential flooding from the 10-year (10%), 100-year (1%),  and 500-year (0.2%) storm recurrence intervals within the study area. The modeling includes flows for these storm events under existing conditions and also hypothetical scenarios with predicted increases in precipitation and population growth.

 

The project team used these models and data to propose and evaluate a series of design measures that help reduce and mitigate existing and anticipated flood risk within the study area. Where possible, the proposed solutions prioritized approaches that protect and/or mirror natural flood protection mechanisms within the watershed such as floodplain re-connection and wetland establishment. In addition to flood protection, the project components also provide water quality protection, aesthetics and recreation, pollutant reduction, and wildlife habitat creation.

Land Use and Zoning

Zoning is a powerful tool that determines a region’s exposure to hazards and risk. Zoning determines which uses are permitted, or encouraged, to be built in moderate and high-risk areas. It also prevents certain uses, such as critical facilities, from being built in those areas. Zoning is also a determinant of a region’s character and identity.

In the Lower Moodna Creek watershed, a large majority (82%) of land is zoned for residential use. However, in the flood-prone areas, there is a higher ratio of areas zoned for non-residential uses (commercial, industrial) than in areas that are zoned for potential future development. Specifically, within the 10-year storm recurrence floodplain, 30% of the land is zoned for industrial use. This is likely because several facilities, such as wastewater treatment plants and mills, require access to the river and were strategically developed to be within immediate proximity of waterfront access. The Lower Moodna zoning analysis demonstrated a general preference within watershed to limit residential use of flood-prone areas. 

Land Preservation

Preserving land allows for natural stormwater management, as well as limits the exposure of development, and minimizes sources of erosion within the watershed. Preserved land also maintains the hydrologic and ecologic function of the land by allowing rainwater to be absorbed or retained where it falls and thus minimizing run-off. If the land within the floodplain is preserved, it will never be developed, and therefore the risk — a calculation of rate exposure and the value of the potential damage — is eliminated.  Therefore, land preservation, both within the floodplains and in upland areas, is the best way to minimize flood damage.

Conserved riparian areas also generate a range of ecosystem services, in addition to the hazard mitigation benefits they provide. Protected forests, grasslands, and wetlands along rivers and streams can improve water quality, provide habitat to many species, and offer a wide range of recreational opportunities. Given the co-benefits that protected lands provide, there is growing interest in floodplain conservation as a flood damage reduction strategy.

Within the mapped Lower Moodna floodplains, our assessment determined that there appears to be a slight priority for preserving land most at-risk for flooding. This is likely a consequence of prioritizing land that is closest to riparian areas and preserving wetland areas, which are the most likely to experience flooding. Within the floodplains for the 10-year storm, approximately 22.7% is preserved. For the 100-year storm, approximately 21.2% of the land is preserved. Within the 500-year storm, this number drops slightly to 20.3%. These numbers are so close in part because the difference between the 10-year, 100-year, and 500-year floodplains are small in many areas of the watershed.

Hydrology and Hydraulics

Hydrology is the scientific study of the waters of the earth, with a particular focus on how rainfall and evaporation affect the flow of water in streams and storm drains. Hydraulics is the engineering analysis of the flow of water in channels, pipelines, and other hydraulic structures. Hydrology and hydraulics analyses are a key part of flood management.

As part of this flood assessment, Princeton Hydro created a series of hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) models to assess the extent of potential flooding from the 10-year, 100-year, and 500-year storm recurrence intervals within the Lower Moodna. The modeling, which included flows for these storm events under existing conditions and future conditions based on predicted increases in precipitation and population growth, makes it easier to assess what new areas are most impacted in the future.

These are just a few of the assessments we conducted to analyze the ways in which flooding within the watershed may be affected by changes in land use, precipitation, and mitigation efforts. The flood models we developed informed our recommendations and proposed flood mitigation solutions for reducing and mitigating existing and anticipated flood risk.

Stay tuned for Part Two of this blog series in which we will explore flood risk-reduction strategies that include both traditional engineering and natural systems solutions. For more information about Princeton Hydro’s flood management services, go here: http://bit.ly/PHfloodplain.

 

Conservation Spotlight: Dunes at Shoal Harbor Shoreline Protection

Hurricane Sandy was the largest storm to ever originate in the Atlantic ocean. It badly damaged several countries in the Caribbean, caused over $50 billion in damages along the Eastern Seaboard, and left dozens dead. While hurricanes are a natural part of our climate system, research shows that intense hurricane activity has been on the rise in the North Atlantic since the 1970s. This trend is likely to be exacerbated by sea level rise and growing populations along coastlines. Natural coastal habitats — like wetlands and dunes — have proven to shield people from storms and sea-level rise, and have protected coastal communities from hundreds of millions of dollars in damage.

The Dunes at Shoal Harbor, a residential community in Monmouth County, New Jersey, is situated adjacent to both the Raritan Bay and the New York City Ferry channel. The site, previously utilized for industrial purposes, consisted of a partially demolished docking/berthing facility. A significantly undersized 6” diameter, 8-foot long stone revetment was also constructed on the property.

During Hurricane Sandy, the revetment failed and the community was subjected to direct wave attack and flooding. Homes were damaged, beach access was impaired, and the existing site-wide stormwater management basin and outfall was completely destroyed.

Princeton Hydro performed a wave attack analysis commensurate with a category three hurricane event, and used that data to complete a site design for shoreline protection. Consistent with the analysis, the site design includes the installation of a 15-foot rock revetment (one foot above the 100-year floodplain elevation) constructed with four-foot diameter boulders. The project also consists of replacing a failed elevated timber walkway with a concrete slab-on-grade walkway, restoring portions of the existing bulkhead, clearing invasive plants, and the complete restoration of the failed stormwater basin and outlet.

A rendering of the “Dunes at Shoal Harbor” shoreline protection design by Princeton Hydro.

The plan incorporates natural barriers to reduce the impacts of storm surges and protect the coastal community, including planting stabilizing coastal vegetation to prevent erosion and installing fencing along the dune to facilitate natural dune growth.

These measures will discourage future erosion of the shoreline, protect the residential community from future wave attacks and flooding, and create a stable habitat for native and migratory species.  The project is currently in the permitting phase, and will move to construction when all permits are obtained from local, state, and federal agencies.

This project is an great example of Princeton Hydro’s ability to coordinate multi-disciplinary projects in-house. Our Water Resources Engineering, Geosciences Engineering, and Natural Resources teams have collaborated efficiently to analyze, design, and permit this shoreline protection project. For more information on our engineering services, go here.

The Plight of Aging Dams, and One Solution

As dams age, the danger to life and property around them increases. If they were to suddenly fail and flood downstream communities and infrastructure, there would be serious loss of property and life. More and more, dam removal has become the best option for property owners who no longer want or can no longer afford the rising cost of maintenance and repair work required to maintain such a complex structure.

The Courier-Post recently published this Commentary piece titled, “The Plight of Aging Dams, and One Solution”, which was written by Princeton Hydro’s Vice President and Principal Engineer Geoffrey M. Goll:

Many of our nation’s dams, while originally intended to provide benefits for mills, water supply and energy generation, are severely aged and unmaintained. Nearly 20,000 of the dams on the Army Corps of Engineers’ National Inventory of Dams – which doesn’t even include many dams that are not inventoried or known about – were built in the 1960s. With expected lifespans of 50 years, these dams have reached their limit. And by 2020, 70 percent of all dams will be over 50 years old. Like roads and bridges, dams also require upkeep, maintenance and eventually removal or rehabilitation.

As dams age, the danger to life and property around them increases. If they were to suddenly fail and flood downstream communities and infrastructure, there would be loss of property and life. The Association of State Dam Safety Officials, the professional organization for dam safety engineering professionals and regulators, estimates there would need to be a $21 billion investment to repair just 2,000 deficient, high-hazard dams. More and more, the removal of dams has become an option for owners who no longer want or no longer can afford the rising cost of maintenance and repair work required to maintain such a complex structure.

For dams like this, removal benefits local economies, and eliminates threats to people and property in local communities. There are also many byproduct benefits, including restoring fish migration routes, improving water quality, restoring floodplain functions and values, and increasing biodiversity.

On Sept. 8, we had the honor of meeting the Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell during a visit of our Hughesville Dam removal project on the Musconetcong River, located in northwestern New Jersey. This project exemplifies the successes that can be achieved through public-private partnerships, including local communities, state and federal agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and private commercial entities. This is the fifth dam removed on the Musconetcong River by a coalition of stakeholders, led by the Musconetcong Watershed Association. The Department of the Interior (specifically, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) provided funding to remove this very old, out-of-compliance dam.

The success of these partnerships is due to the unique strengths that each organization brings to the table. This project achieved the removal of a flood and safety hazard, and will restore additional river miles for migratory fish, improve water quality by removing the heat sink of the reservoir, and provide additional safe passage for recreation along the river.

It is easy to see why Secretary Jewell chose this site to visit, but the old and outdated dam at Hughesville is far from alone. Across the nation, we need to remove dams like this at a much larger scale – aging dams that no longer are of value to us, but increase the danger to those who live downstream. If we can build on this momentum and start to address the issue of dam safety compliance on a national scale, we can address these threats to American’s safety and strengthen local economies.