Princeton Hydro Founder Receives Lake Management Achievement Award

We’re thrilled to announce that Princeton Hydro Founder Dr. Stephen J Souza received the North American Lake Management Society’s “2017 Lake Management Success Stories Award” for his work with Lake Mohawk.

While accepting his award Dr. Souza stated, “this would not have been possible had it not been for the foresight of the Lake Mohawk Country Club and the support we have received over the years from the Lake Board, the current General Manager Barbara Wortman, Steve Waehler and the Lake Committee, Ernie Hofer and Gene DePerz of the Lake Mohawk Preservation Foundation, and of course the late Fran Smith.”

Steve went on to thank his staff at Princeton Hydro, especially Chris Mikolajczyk and Dr. Fred Lubnow, for their efforts over the years “collecting and analyzing a variety of lake data and implementing the innovative restoration practices responsible for the lake’s water quality improvements.”

Since 1990, Dr. Souza has worked with the Lake Mohawk Country Club and the Lake Mohawk Preservation Foundation to develop and implement successful lake management strategies to restore and protect the health of the lake and its surrounding watershed.

The NALMS award recognizes an individual or team with notable accomplishment of lake and reservoir management efforts that demonstrate improvements in lake/reservoir condition or watershed management in a cost-effective manner.

Many thanks to Lake Mohawk for the continued partnership and steadfast commitment to water quality. And, thanks to NALMS for bestowing Dr. Souza with this great honor.

Click here to see the complete 2017 awards recap from NALMS.

Tracking and Managing Harmful Algae Blooms

A Presentation by Princeton Hydro Founder Dr. Stephen Souza
Available for Free Download Here

The presentation covers all things related to identifying, addressing and preventing Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs), including:

  • Understanding what defines HABs, Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins
  • Dispelling common misconceptions about HABs
  • Educating on the health implications associated with HABs, specifically related to drinking water and recreational water usage
  • Learning about PARETM – Princeton Hydro’s unique strategy for addressing HABs
    • (P)redict – Forecasting a bloom
    • (A)nalyze – Measuring and quantifying a bloom
    • (R)eact – Implementing measures to prevent and control a bloom
    • (E)ducate – Providing community outreach and public education

To learn more about Princeton Hydro’s Invasive Weed and Algae Management Services, visit our website or contact us!


Invasive Species in Watershed Management

A Presentation by Princeton Hydro Director of Aquatic Programs Dr. Fred Lubnow

Available for Free Download Here

Dr. Fred Lubnow, Director of Aquatic Programs for Princeton Hydro, recently held an information session about Hydrilla, the Godzilla of Invasive Species. Hosted by the Lake Hopatcong Commission, the presentation covered how to identify Hydrilla and how to prevent its proliferation.

Many recreational lake users can identify Water Chestnut, but Hydrilla is much more difficult to differentiate from another species, Elodea, which is native to Lake Hopatcong.  Dr. Lubnow’s presentation illustrates how to easily compare Elodea to Hydrilla. Armed with this information, lake users will be able to spread the word and be on the look-out for Hydrilla and other invasives.

To learn more about Princeton Hydro’s Invasive Species Management Services, visit our website or contact us!

Dr. Lubnow Invasive Species Presentation

Pesticide-Free Lake Management Solutions

Blue Water Solutions for Green Water Problems

Managing your lakes and ponds without the use of pesticides


Proper lake and pond restoration is contingent with having a well prepared management plan. If you don’t start there, you’re just guessing as to which solutions will solve your problem. Successful, sustainable lake and pond management requires identifying and correcting the cause of eutrophication as opposed to simply reacting to the symptoms (algae and weed growth) of eutrophication. As such, Princeton Hydro collects and analyzes data to identify the problem causers and uses these scientific findings to develop a customized management plan for your specific lake or pond. A successful management plan should include a combination of biological, mechanical and source control solutions.  Here are some examples:

Biological Control:

Floating Wetland Islands (FWIs) are a great example of an effective biological control solution. They have the potential to provide multiple ecological benefits. Highly adaptable, FWIs can be sized, configured and planted to fit the needs of nearly any lake, pond or reservoir.


Often described as self-sustaining, Floating Wetland Islands:

  • Help assimilate and remove excess nutrients that could fuel algae growth
  • Provide habitat for fish and other aquatic organisms
  • Help mitigate wave and wind erosion impacts
  • Provide an aesthetic element
  • Can be part of a holistic lake/pond management strategy

Read an article on Floating Wetland Islands written by our Aquatics Director Fred Lubnow.

Mechanical Control:

Another way to combat algae and invasive weed growth is via mechanical removal. One of the mechanical controls Princeton Hydro employs is the TruxorDM5000, an eco-friendly, multi-purpose amphibious machine that provides an effective, non-pesticide approach to controlling invasive weeds and problematic algae growth.

The TruxorDM5000: TRUXOR

  • Is capable of operating in shallow ponds and lakes where the access and/or operation of conventional harvesting or hydroraking equipment is limited
  • Is highly portable and maneuverable, yet very powerful
  • Can cut and harvest weeds and collect mat algae in near-shore areas with water depths less than three feet
  • Includes various attachments that allow the machine to easily collect and remove a variety of debris
  • Can be outfitted for sediment removal/dredging

Check out the Truxor in action here! 

Source Control:

Because phosphorus is typically the nutrient that fuels algae and weed growth, excessive phosphorus loading leads to problematic algal blooms and can stimulate excessive weed growth. One of the most sustainable means of controlling nuisance weed and algae proliferation is to control phosphorus inputs or reduce the availability of phosphorus for biological uptake and assimilation. The measures that decrease the amount or availability of phosphorus in a lake or pond are defined as “source control” strategies.

Deerfield Lake, PA – PhosLockTM treatment Through data collection and analysis, we can properly identify the primary sources of phosphorus loading to a lake and pond, whether those sources are internal or external.  Our team of lake managers, aquatic ecologists and water resource engineers use those data to develop a management plan that quantifies, prioritizes and correctly addresses problem sources of phosphorus.

PhosLockTM and alum are often utilized as environmentally-safe and controlled means to limit phosphorus availably. Although PhosLockTM works similar to alum, it does not have some of the inherent secondary environmental limitations associated with alum. PhosLockTM is a patented product that has a high affinity to bind to and permanently remove from the water column both soluble reactive and particulate forms of phosphorus. This makes it a very effective pond and lake management tool.

Read more about controlling harmful algae blooms.

These are just a few of the examples of non-pesticide lake and pond management strategies that Princeton Hydro regularly utilizes. Properly managing your lakes and ponds starts with developing the right plan and involves a holistic approach to ensure continued success. For more ideas or for help putting together a customized, comprehensive management plan, please contact us! 

Visit Princeton Hydro at PALMS Conference: February 24 & 25

The Pennsylvania Lake Management Society (PALMS) is hosting its 26th annual conference on February 24 & 25 at the Ramada Hotel and Conference Center in State College, PA. Lake professionals, students, recreation enthusiasts, lakeside residents and community members are all invited to come together to explore a variety of topics related to managing lakes and reservoirs. 

The conference offers a collection of professional presentations, workshops and panel discussions. Attendees are also invited to the exhibit hall to discover the latest lake management tools and technologies, exchange information with a diverse group of vendors and network with peers. Be sure to visit the Princeton Hydro Booth to talk with them about the latest advancements in pond, lake and watershed management.

On February 24, Princeton Hydro President, Stephen Souza, invites you to attend his presentation on tracking and controlling cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms using the firm’s unique PARE™ program. The presentation is at 11:10am followed by a panel discussion on cyanobacteria related lake and pond issues at 11:50am.

During the second day of the conference, Princeton Hydro Director of Aquatic Programs, Fred Lubnow, encourages you to join him for a lecture and discussion on the ecology and management of shallow lakes at 11:30am. 

Click here for the complete 2016 PALMS Conference Schedule. The Princeton Hydro team hopes to see you there! 

In advance of the conference, if you’d like to learn more about the problems associated with cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms and how to implement PARE™, a comprehensive program for tracking and quantifying harmful algae blooms, you can read the “Emerging Issues” white paper by clicking here.

Tracking and Addressing Harmful Algae Blooms

Princeton Hydro’s PARE™ Program:
A Tool for Tracking and Addressing Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs)

Understanding HABs

Over the past decade we have learned more about the serious health implications associated with intense cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae) blooms. Although cyanobacteria are not truly algae, these blooms have come to be labeled Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs). Cyanobacteria have a number of evolved advantages relative to “good phytoplankton.” For example, many cyanobacteria are capable of fixing and assimilating atmospheric nitrogen, thus providing them with an unlimited source of a key growth-limiting nutrient. Most are also biologically adept at up-taking and utilizing organic phosphorus, another growth-limiting nutrient. Certain cyanobacteria can also regulate their position in the water column, thereby enabling them to capitalize on changing environmental conditions. HABsMany also are adept at effectively photosynthesizing under low light conditions. Finally, they are selectively rejected as a food source by filter feeders and zooplankton. These “life history” strategies enable cyanobacteria to rapidly out-compete phytoplankton and exploit their environment leading to a bloom.

It has been repeatedly documented that, under the correct set of conditions, HABs may generate very high concentrations of cyanotoxins. These toxins are used by cyanobacteria to achieve dominance in a lake, pond or river. Swimming in waters with even low concentrations of cyanotoxin may cause skin rashes (even for dogs and livestock), ear/throat infections and gastrointestinal distress. At high concentrations, cyanotoxins can impact the health of humans, pets and livestock. Drinking water contaminated by very high cyanotoxin concentrations can actually be lethal. Recently, increased attention is being given to possible links between cyanotoxins and neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, ALS and Alzheimer’s.

The cyanobacteria of greatest concern include Microcystis, Planktothrix, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya and Gloeotrichia. Different types of cyanotoxins are produced by these various cyanobacteria. The cyanotoxins receiving the most attention are Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin, but Anatoxin–a, Saxitoxins and Anatoxin-a(S) are also very problematic.

Regulatory agencies are still struggling to define what constitutes a “problem” and how to deal with HABs. For a number of years the World Health Organization (WHO) has used a provisional drinking water standard of 1 µg/L microcystin in drinking water. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recently issued cyanotoxin guidance for drinking water that provides different action levels for children versus adults and for microcystin and cylindrospermopsin¹. Adding to the confusion, the majority of the States are still developing guidance and/or regulations concerning cyanotoxins in both drinking water and recreational waterbodies. As such, it is difficult to define when a bloom constitutes a problem and, more importantly, what action to implement to protect the health and welfare of the public, pets and livestock.

Cyanotoxins may be released into the environment by both living and dead cyanobacteria. However, the greatest concentrations occur as the cyanobacteria die and the cells break down –  something that is exacerbated by treating it with copper sulfate, which is the standard response to treating a bloom. Thus, “killing off” a bloom can actually make matters worse by quickly releasing large amounts of cyanotoxins into the water column. Once released into the environment, cyanotoxins are extremely stable and decompose slowly.

Common Misconceptions About HABs

There are a variety of common misconceptions about HABs, including: they occur only in the summer when water temperatures are elevated; they are unique to nutrient rich (hypereutrophic) systems; they are driven solely by elevated phosphorus concentrations; and they are most likely to occur under stable (stratified) water column conditions. The most potentially harmful misconception is that HABs can be cured by treating them with copper sulfate; because, as noted above, copper sulfate treatments can actually make things worse.

The above “typical conditions” don’t always lead to a HAB, and blooms with elevated cyanotoxin levels may occur even in nutrient-limited waters or under environmental circumstances that deviate from the “norm.” To further complicate matters, not all cyanobacteria are associated with HABs, cyanotoxin producers may not always produce cyanotoxins, and the taste and odor compounds often associated with HABs may be generated by non-HAB algae species. As such, the only definitive way to understand if a waterbody suffers from, or is in danger of suffering from, a HAB is to collect the proper data. This includes:

  • Quantification and speciation of the phytoplankton community
  • Collection and analysis of Chlorophyll a
  • In-Situ measurement of
    • Dissolved oxygen
    • Temperature
    • pH
    • Secchi disk depth
  • Collection and analysis of
    • Phosphorus (TP, SRP, DOP and DIP)
    • Nitrogen (Nitrate and Ammonia)
  • Measurement of taste and odor compounds
    • Geosmin
    • 2-methylisoborneol (aka MIB)
  • Analysis of the amount of Microcystin present in the water column.

To date, cyanotoxin testing has been expensive and the data turn-around slow.

A Strategy for Tracking and Managing HABs

To help understand and monitor HABs, Princeton Hydro recently launched a multi-prong strategy called PARE™ (Predict, Analyze, React, and Educate). Princeton Hydro’s PARE™ program focuses on the importance of thoroughly understanding site conditions, properly tailoring action programs and sustaining management efforts that go far beyond simply treating a bloom. As noted above, the PARE™ program consists of four key, interrelated elements:

  • Predict – Forecast a bloom using a long-term database of keystone parameters, and/or remote sensing techniques
  • Analyze – Quantify a bloom’s severity by measuring key diagnostic parameters including Microcystin
  • React – Implement measures to prevent, control or terminate a HAB
  • Educate – Share information with and educate the community about HABs


Ideally, to successfully predict HABs, it is paramount to measure the amounts of phosphorus, nitrogen, and chlorophyll in the water column, track dissolved oxygen and water temperature profiles, and identify the types and densities of cyanoWater Quality Databacteria and phytoplankton. Overall, in order to effectively predict the onset, magnitude and duration of a HAB, it is necessary to have a good data foundation.


With an adequate database, it becomes possible to develop algorithms that account for all of the chemical, hydrologic and physical variables that may lead to HABs, including seasonal differences in weather and precipitation. In some cases it may also be possible to utilize remote sensing technology to track bloom development.

With a suitable database, it becomes possible to develop HAB thresholds based on:

  • Phytoplankton densities (cell counts)
  • Bloom indicators
    • Declining Secchi disc clarity : < 1 meter)
    • Chlorophyll a concentration: >20 µg/L)
    • MIB concentration : >10 ng/L
    • Geosmin concentration: > 10 ng/L

As part of PARE™ we also now have the ability to quickly and effectively measure the concentration of Microcystin in the water column using a combination of rapid response field test kits and accurate, quick-turnaround laboratory analyses.  The Microcystin data can then be compared to established USEPA or, when available, state guidance concentrations for cyanotoxins in drinking water and recreational water.


The data that are generated from the Predict and Analyze elements of the PARE™ program enables us to know when aChart bloom is about to occur or has developed, and quantify the severity of the bloom.  The many variables that may lead to HABs interact in a complex manner in lake and pond ecosystems. Manipulating the ecosystem to prevent or treat HABs requires extensive expertise.  

Some of the interactions that must be taken into consideration include:   

Biological linkages and interactions

  • Nitrogen fixers versus non-nitrogen fixers
  • Early blooming species potentially setting the stage for more problematic later blooming species
  • Zooplanktivory and the role of the fishery in stimulating a bloom or creating the environmental conditions supportive of a bloom
  • Nitrogen/Phosphorus ratios as well as the type, availability and sources of these primary nutrients

Through the correct understanding of these interactions it becomes possible to properly React by designing and implementing various pre-emptive controls and corrective measures such as:

  • Aeration and mixing,
  • Use of nutrient inactivators (alum, PhosLock® and alum surrogates),
  • Ozone,
  • Biomanipulation of the fish and plankton communities, and
  • Limited, properly timed algaecide applications.  

On a larger, long-term scale, the React element of the PARE™ program encompasses watershed management programs targeting nutrient load reductions that can actually reduce bloom frequency/intensity.  

Although the React element recognizes the role of algaecides as a potential part of the solution, it does not condone repeated extensive treatments with copper sulfate.  As noted above, relying solely on substantial copper sulfate treatments most often only triggers worse conditions and leads to spiraling, repetitive blooms.

Education and Outreach

Besides informing the public about health concerns related to cyanobacteria and HABs, it is important that stakeholders are also informed about measures that they can implement to help prevent blooms.  This includes “on-lot” nutrient controls such as septic management, limited application of lawn fertilizers, creation of shoreline buffers and waterfowl control. It is also necessary for stakeholders to understand the lifecycle of HABs, that ongoing monitoring and management help address HABs before they peak, and that, while seeming to be the “magic bullet,” copper sulfate is not the proper management tool.

Implementing PARE™

Begin PARE™ early, with the sampling of the above-noted key water quality Sampling Kitparameters and bloom initiated in early spring.  Then sample on a regular basis over the entire course of the growing season, especially in the summer when cyanobacteria problems emerge and peak. This information will become the foundation of the comprehensive database used to make timely management decisions.  The key is to be in a position to predict the onset of a bloom so that management actions can be implemented in a proactive, as opposed to reactive, manner.  Microcystin sampling can be focused on beach areas or around water intakes.  Begin with the simple, test-strip rapid response, in-field testing and, when necessary, use the laboratory analyses to confirm or further quantify whether a bloom has triggered a cyanotoxin problem.  If there is early evidence of a cyanobacteria bloom, implement the proper measures needed to control the bloom.  While bloom control measures are being implemented, continue to collect and analyze the microcystin data to confirm that the implemented measures have improved water quality and that conditions are safe for the ingestion of the water or the recreational use of the lake. After achieving specific water quality and HAB control goals, continue to implement the measures needed to track conditions and prevent/react to future blooms.  This will further facilitate the ability to respond to and control cyanobacteria blooms.

For more information about HABs and PARE™ come see us at the upcoming Pennsylvania Lake Management Society (PALMS) Conference. Click for details.

¹0.3 µg/L for microcystin and 0.7 µg/L for cylindrospermopsin children < than school age. For all others 1.6 µg/L for microcystin and 3.0 µg/L for cylindrospermopsin.