Understanding and Implementing Green Infrastructure

By Tucker Simmons and Dr. Clay Emerson, PE, CFM

People generally think of green infrastructure as an eco-friendly way to handle stormwater runoff. While many green infrastructure elements are planned and managed specifically for stormwater control, the capabilities and benefits are far reaching. In this piece, we’ll provide an in-depth look at all that green infrastructure encompasses, best practices, and real-world examples of green infrastructure projects in action.

WHAT IS GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE?

Defined as an approach to water management that protects, restores, or mimics the natural water cycle, green infrastructure can be implemented for large scale projects and small scale projects alike.

Unlike conventional, or “gray” infrastructure, green infrastructure uses vegetation, soil, and other natural components to manage stormwater and generate healthier urban environments. Green infrastructure systems mimic natural hydrology to take advantage of interception, evapotranspiration and infiltration of stormwater runoff at its source. Examples include permeable pavers, rain gardens, bioretention basins, rain barrels, and tree boxes.

WHY IS GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE BENEFICIAL?

Green infrastructure provides various benefits, including cleaning and conserving water, reducing flooding, improving public health, providing jobs, beautifying neighborhoods, supporting wildlife and providing economic benefits at both the larger community and individual household level. Let’s take a closer look at some of the primary benefits:

Prevents Flooding: By absorbing and slowing the flow of water, green infrastructure can reduce the burden on storm sewer systems and mitigate localized flooding.

Saves Money: While some green infrastructure designs may require the same or greater initial investment than conventional strategies, green design methods provide a big return in reducing costs over the long-term.

Improves Water Quality: Through natural absorption and filtration processes, green infrastructure significantly reduces stormwater runoff volume, decreases the pollutants and particulates within the stormwater, and improves the quality of the runoff flowing into surrounding water bodies.

Improves Air Quality: Green infrastructure techniques like tree boxes, green roofs and vegetative barriers have long been associated with improving air quality. Urban tree boxes help shade surfaces, effectively putting moisture into the air while reducing greenhouse gases. Trees mitigate heat and air pollution, both cooling and cleaning the air.

Enhances Aesthetics: Many green infrastructure practices utilize native plants and trees to improve runoff absorption and reduce stormwater pollution. This vegetation can provide a sound barrier or privacy screen for properties, and enhances the overall aesthetics of the surrounding environment. 

Increases Property Values: Research shows that property values increase when trees and other vegetation are present in urban areas. Planting trees can increase property values by as much as 15%.

LARGE-SCALE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE IMPLEMENTATION:

With the use of proper design techniques, green infrastructure can be applied almost anywhere and is especially beneficial in urban areas. In developed environments, unmanaged stormwater creates two major issues: one related to the volume and timing of stormwater runoff (flooding) and the other related to pollutants the water carries. Green Infrastructure in urban environments can recharge groundwater, decrease runoff, improve water quality, and restore aquatic habitats while controlling flooding.

Across the United States, more than 700 cities utilize combined sewer systems (CSS) to collect and convey both sanitary sewage and stormwater to wastewater treatment facilities. During dry weather, all wastewater flows are conveyed to a sewage treatment plant where it receives appropriate treatment before it is discharged to the waterway. However, during heavy rainfall or significant snowmelt, the additional flow exceeds the capacity of the system resulting in a discharge of untreated sewage and stormwater to the waterway; this discharge is referred to as a combined sewer overflow (CSOs). For many cities with CSS, CSOs remain one of the greatest challenges to meeting water quality standards. Green infrastructure practices mimic natural hydrologic processes to reduce the quantity and/or rate of stormwater flows into the CSS.

New Jersey, as part of the 2012 USEPA’s Integrated Municipal Stormwater and Wastewater Planning Approach Framework, utilized green infrastructure as one of the main components in managing its CSS and reducing CSOs. Because of the flexibility of green infrastructure in design performance, it can reduce and mitigate localized flooding and sewer back-ups while also reducing CSOs. An integrated plan that addresses both overflows and flooding can often be more cost-effective than addressing these issues separately. New Jersey, in addition to meeting its CSO reduction goals, is using green infrastructure throughout the sewershed to build resilience to large storm events and improve stormwater management.

Stormwater planters installed by the Philadelphia Water Department

Philadelphia takes advantage of numerous green stormwater infrastructure programs such as Green Streets, Green Schools, and Green Parking. There are a wide variety of green infrastructure practices that Philadelphia is using to decrease stormwater runoff throughout the entire city. After just five years of implementing the Green City, Green Waterplan, Philadelphia has reduced the stormwater pollution entering its waterways by 85%. Using over 1,100 green stormwater tools (i.e. CSO, living landscapes, permeable surfaces, etc.), in just one year, Philadelphia was able to prevent over 1.7 billion gallons of polluted water from entering their rivers and streams.

New York City is using a green infrastructure program, led by its Department of Environmental Protection, that utilizes multiple green infrastructure practices to promote the natural movement of water while preventing polluted stormwater runoff from entering sewer systems and surrounding waterbodies. While attaining this goal, the green infrastructure also provides improvements in water and air quality, as well as improves the aesthetics of the streets and neighborhoods. According to the NYC Green Infrastructure Plan, “By 2030, we estimate that New Yorkers will receive between $139 million and $418 million in additional benefits such as reduced energy bills, increased property values, and improved health.”

SMALL-SCALE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE IMPLEMENTATION:

Green infrastructure techniques are extremely beneficial on every scale. Residential homes and neighborhoods can benefit from the implementation of green infrastructure in more ways than many people realize. There are a wide variety of green infrastructure projects that can be completed with a relatively small time and financial investment. Many of us at Princeton Hydro have incorporated green infrastructure practices into our homes and properties. Here’s a look at some of those projects in action:

Dr. Steve Souza, a founding principal of Princeton Hydro, installed rain gardens throughout his property utilizing native, drought-resistant, pollinator-attracting plants. The rain gardens are designed to capture and infiltrate rainwater runoff from the roof, driveway, patio and lawn.

Princeton Hydro’s President Geoffrey Goll, P.E. built an infiltration trench in his backyard. An infiltration trench is a type of best management practice (BMP) that is used to manage stormwater runoff, prevent flooding and downstream erosion, and improve water quality in adjacent waterways. 

And, in the front yard, Geoffrey installed a variety of wildflower plantings.

MUNICIPAL TOOLKIT

An interactive website toolkit was recently launched by New Jersey Future to help municipalities across the state incorporate green infrastructure projects into their communities. For this project, Princeton Hydro’s engineers and scientists provided real-world examples integrating green infrastructure into development in order to bring to light the benefits and importance of investing in green infrastructure at the local level. The New Jersey Green Infrastructure Municipal Toolkit provides expert information on planning, implementing, and sustaining green infrastructure to manage stormwater. This toolkit acts as a one-stop resource for community leaders who want to sustainably manage stormwater, reduce localized flooding, and improve water quality.

GET STARTED

Since its inception, Princeton Hydro has been a leader in innovative, cost-effective, and environmentally sound stormwater management systems. Long before the term “green infrastructure” was part of the design community’s lexicon, the firm’s engineers were integrating stormwater management with natural systems to fulfill such diverse objectives as flood control, water quality protection, and pollutant reduction. Princeton Hydro has developed regional nonpoint source pollutant budgets for over 100 waterways. The preparation of stormwater management plans and design of stormwater management systems for pollutant reduction is an integral part of many of the firm’s projects.

Interested in working with us on your next Green Infrastructure project? Contact us here.


Tucker Simmons, Water Resources Intern

Tucker is a Civil and Environmental Engineering major at Rowan University focusing on Water Resources Engineering. He is the President and player of the Rowan University Men’s DII Ice Hockey Team. His Junior Clinic experience includes the study of Bio-Cemented sand and the Remote Sensing of Landfill Fires. In the future, Tucker hopes to work on creating a more sustainable environment. Tucker enjoys playing ice hockey, being with friends and family, and exercising.

 

Clay Emerson, Senior Project Manager

Clay’s areas of expertise include hydrologic and hydraulic analysis, stormwater management and infiltration, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, watershed modeling, groundwater hydrology/modeling, and water quality and quantity monitoring at both the individual site and watershed scales. His educational and work experience includes a substantial amount of crossover between engineering and environmental science applications. He has specific expertise in the field of stormwater infiltration and has conducted extensive research on the NPS pollution control and water quantity control performance of stormwater BMPs. He regularly disseminates his monitoring results through numerous peer-reviewed journal publications, magazine articles, and presentations.

 

Two-Part Blog Series: Flood Assessment, Mitigation & Management

In this two part blog series, we showcase our work in the Moodna Creek Watershed in order to explore some of the concepts and methods used to estimate flood risk for existing conditions and the year 2050 and develop a flood management strategy (Part One), and traditional engineering and natural systems solutions used to manage and reduce flood risk (Part Two).

Part One: Flood Assessment & Mitigation Analysis in the Moodna Creek Watershed

The greater Moodna Creek watershed covers 180 square miles of eastern Orange County, NY. The watershed includes 22 municipalities and hundreds of streams before joining the Hudson River. This region has seen tremendous growth in recent years with the expansion of regional transit networks and critical infrastructure.

The Moodna Creek watershed can be split into two sub-basins — the Upper Moodna Creek and the Lower Moodna Creek. In the span of 15 months, Hurricane Irene, Tropical Storm Lee, and Hurricane Sandy each have caused significant flooding throughout the Moodna Creek watershed, damaging public facilities, roadways, and private properties. Both sub-basin communities have noted a concern about increased flood risk as more development occurs.

As global temperatures rise, climate models are predicting more intense rainfall events. And, the flood risk for communities along waterways — like the Moodna Creek watershed — will likely increase as time passes. In order to understand existing and future risk from flood events in this flood-prone area, a flood risk management strategy needed to be developed. The strategy uses a cost-benefit analysis to review the feasibility of each measure and the overall impact in reducing flood risks.

With funds provided from a 2016 grant program sponsored by the New England Interstate Waters Pollution Control Commission (NEIWPCC) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation’s (NYCDEC) Hudson River Estuary Program (HEP), Princeton Hydro along with a variety of project partners completed a flood assessment and flood mitigation analysis specific to the Lower Moodna Creek watershed.

Let’s take a closer look at our work with the Lower Moodna Creek watershed, and explore some of the methods used to estimate flood risk and develop a flood management strategy:

Lower Moodna Creek Watershed Flood Assessment & Analysis

The primary Lower Moodna Creek project goals were to assess flood vulnerabilities and propose flood mitigation solutions that consider both traditional engineering strategies and natural systems solution approaches (land preservation, wetland/forest restoration, green infrastructure and green water management). The project team focused on ways to use the natural environment to reduce risk.  Instead of strictly focusing on just Moonda Creek, the team took a holistic approach which included all areas that drain into the river too. These analyses were incorporated into a Flood Assessment Master Plan and Flood Mitigation Plan, which will serve as a road map to reducing flooding issues within the watershed.

Managing Flood Risk

The first step in managing flood risk is to understand what type of exposure the communities face. The Moodna Creek project modeled flooding within the watershed during normal rain events, extreme rain events, and future rain events with two primary goals in mind:

Visual assessment being conducted in flood-prone areas of Moodna Creek Watershed.

  • Assess the facilities, infrastructure, and urban development that are at risk from flooding along the Moodna Creek and its tributaries within the study area.
  • Develop a series of hydrologic and hydraulic models to assess the extent of potential flooding from the 10-year (10%), 100-year (1%),  and 500-year (0.2%) storm recurrence intervals within the study area. The modeling includes flows for these storm events under existing conditions and also hypothetical scenarios with predicted increases in precipitation and population growth.

 

The project team used these models and data to propose and evaluate a series of design measures that help reduce and mitigate existing and anticipated flood risk within the study area. Where possible, the proposed solutions prioritized approaches that protect and/or mirror natural flood protection mechanisms within the watershed such as floodplain re-connection and wetland establishment. In addition to flood protection, the project components also provide water quality protection, aesthetics and recreation, pollutant reduction, and wildlife habitat creation.

Land Use and Zoning

Zoning is a powerful tool that determines a region’s exposure to hazards and risk. Zoning determines which uses are permitted, or encouraged, to be built in moderate and high-risk areas. It also prevents certain uses, such as critical facilities, from being built in those areas. Zoning is also a determinant of a region’s character and identity.

In the Lower Moodna Creek watershed, a large majority (82%) of land is zoned for residential use. However, in the flood-prone areas, there is a higher ratio of areas zoned for non-residential uses (commercial, industrial) than in areas that are zoned for potential future development. Specifically, within the 10-year storm recurrence floodplain, 30% of the land is zoned for industrial use. This is likely because several facilities, such as wastewater treatment plants and mills, require access to the river and were strategically developed to be within immediate proximity of waterfront access. The Lower Moodna zoning analysis demonstrated a general preference within watershed to limit residential use of flood-prone areas. 

Land Preservation

Preserving land allows for natural stormwater management, as well as limits the exposure of development, and minimizes sources of erosion within the watershed. Preserved land also maintains the hydrologic and ecologic function of the land by allowing rainwater to be absorbed or retained where it falls and thus minimizing run-off. If the land within the floodplain is preserved, it will never be developed, and therefore the risk — a calculation of rate exposure and the value of the potential damage — is eliminated.  Therefore, land preservation, both within the floodplains and in upland areas, is the best way to minimize flood damage.

Conserved riparian areas also generate a range of ecosystem services, in addition to the hazard mitigation benefits they provide. Protected forests, grasslands, and wetlands along rivers and streams can improve water quality, provide habitat to many species, and offer a wide range of recreational opportunities. Given the co-benefits that protected lands provide, there is growing interest in floodplain conservation as a flood damage reduction strategy.

Within the mapped Lower Moodna floodplains, our assessment determined that there appears to be a slight priority for preserving land most at-risk for flooding. This is likely a consequence of prioritizing land that is closest to riparian areas and preserving wetland areas, which are the most likely to experience flooding. Within the floodplains for the 10-year storm, approximately 22.7% is preserved. For the 100-year storm, approximately 21.2% of the land is preserved. Within the 500-year storm, this number drops slightly to 20.3%. These numbers are so close in part because the difference between the 10-year, 100-year, and 500-year floodplains are small in many areas of the watershed.

Hydrology and Hydraulics

Hydrology is the scientific study of the waters of the earth, with a particular focus on how rainfall and evaporation affect the flow of water in streams and storm drains. Hydraulics is the engineering analysis of the flow of water in channels, pipelines, and other hydraulic structures. Hydrology and hydraulics analyses are a key part of flood management.

As part of this flood assessment, Princeton Hydro created a series of hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) models to assess the extent of potential flooding from the 10-year, 100-year, and 500-year storm recurrence intervals within the Lower Moodna. The modeling, which included flows for these storm events under existing conditions and future conditions based on predicted increases in precipitation and population growth, makes it easier to assess what new areas are most impacted in the future.

These are just a few of the assessments we conducted to analyze the ways in which flooding within the watershed may be affected by changes in land use, precipitation, and mitigation efforts. The flood models we developed informed our recommendations and proposed flood mitigation solutions for reducing and mitigating existing and anticipated flood risk.

Stay tuned for Part Two of this blog series in which we will explore flood risk-reduction strategies that include both traditional engineering and natural systems solutions. For more information about Princeton Hydro’s flood management services, go here: http://bit.ly/PHfloodplain.

 

Deal Lake Commission Wins Award For “Lake Management Success”

NALMS President Dr. Frank Browne with Princeton Hydro Co-Founder Dr. Stephen Souza accepting the “Lake Management Success Stories” award on behalf of the Deal Lake Commission.

The Deal Lake Commission’s success in the management and restoration of Deal Lake garners a prestigious award from the North American Lake Management Society

 

The North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) awarded the Deal Lake Commission (DLC) with its “2018 Lake Management Success Stories” award. The award, which was presented at the NALMS 38th International Symposium, is given annually to recognize and honor an individual or group that has made significant lake/reservoir management accomplishments.

The DLC has overseen the management and restoration of Deal Lake and its watershed since 1974. Consisting of appointees from the seven municipalities abutting the lake, the DLC’s mission is to provide leadership, guidance and resources to preserve and restore Deal Lake and its tributaries as a healthy and stable ecosystem. A true challenge in an urban environment.

“It has been both a pleasure and an honor to work with the Deal Lake Commission for the past 35 years,” said Dr. Stephen Souza, Princeton Hydro Co-Founder. “They have shown great resolve to tackle some serious problems affecting the lake and its watershed, serving as a great example for other organizations involved in the restoration of urban lakes.”

Deal Lake is New Jersey’s largest coastal lake, encompassing 162 acres. The lake is surrounded by a 4,400-acre highly urbanized watershed, with the majority of development dating back to the 1960s-1980s. As a result, stormwater management, particularly with respect to water quality and volume management can be especially challenging. The DLC has embraced the numerous challenges, and has worked diligently over the years to correct these issues.

Restored shoreline at the Asbury Park Boat Launch in Deal LakeAt the forefront, the DLC has been managing the primary cause of the lake’s eutrophication: stormwater runoff from the surrounding watershed. In 2014, with funding provided through the NJDEP’s 319(h) program, the DLC implemented a number of demonstration projects, specifically the construction of three bioretention basins, the installation of a large manufactured treatment device, the vegetative stabilization of over 500 feet of heavily eroded sections of the shoreline, and the construction of a rain garden at the Deal Lake boat launch.

Collectively these projects were shown to eliminate localized flooding, decrease floatable loading, and reduce nutrient, sediment and pathogen inputs to the lake. These and other projects implemented by the DLC over the years show that despite Deal Lake being located in a highly urbanized watershed, it is possible to implement cost-effective green infrastructure and stormwater retrofit solutions.

Deal Lake recently won another very competitive 319 (h) program for $735,000 for MTDs, tree boxes, and Green infrastructure improvements to Deal Lake, Sunset Lake and Wesley Lake.

The NALMS award nomination application, which was submitted by Dr. Souza, listed a number of additional achievements of the DLC, including:

  • Educating the community, including school children, to increase awareness and appreciation for the natural environment of the lake;
  • Sponsoring and conducting public engaged spring and fall cleanups, which annually result in the removal of 1,000s of pounds of refuse and debris from the lake;
  • Helping homeowners and public groups recognize and mindfully solve problems related to water quality, siltation, and lake restoration;
  • Serving as the liaison between lakeside communities, County agencies, and the NJDEP;
  • Microbial source tracking investigations with Monmouth University and pathogen source identification work with Clean Ocean Action to decrease E. coli loading;
  • Carp removal, invasive species management, and goose control initiatives;
  • Working with State legislators to implement stricter stormwater controls to reduce pollutant loading, increase storm resiliency, and improve recreational fishing;
  • Participating in the NALMS Secchi Dip In; and
  • Proactively suggesting and supporting community-based, practical ideas to improve the overall environmental quality of the lake and its enjoyment by boaters, anglers, hikers, residents and visitors.

For more information on the Deal Lake Commission, visit DealLake.org.

The successful, long-term improvement of a lake or pond requires a proactive management approach that addresses the beyond simply reacting to weed and algae growth and other symptoms of eutrophication. Our staff can design and implement holistic, ecologically-sound solutions for the most difficult weed and algae challenges. Visit our website to learn more about Princeton Hydro’s lake management services: http://bit.ly/pondlake.

November Events Spotlight: Conferences Throughout the Country

Princeton Hydro is participating in a variety of conferences taking place throughout the country that address topics ranging from lake management to green infrastructure resiliency:

October 30 – November 2: North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) Conference

NALMS is hosting its 38th International Symposium in Cincinnati Ohio, titled “Now Trending: Innovations in Lake Management.” This year’s symposium includes a robust exhibit hall, a variety of field trips, and a wide array of presentations on topics ranging from the latest in monitoring technologies to combating invasive species to nutrient and water quality management and more. Princeton Hydro’s Dr. Fred Lubnow, Director of Aquatic Programs, and Dr. Stephen Souza, Founder, both of whom have been members of NALMS since its inception, are presenting and exhibiting during the conference.

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October 31 – November 2: Society for American Military Engineers (SAME) Small Business Conference (SBC)

SAME gives leaders from the A/E/C, environmental, and facility management industries the opportunity to come together with federal agencies in order to showcase best practices and highlight future opportunities for small businesses to work in the federal market. Princeton Hydro is proud to be attending the 2018 SAME SBC Conference, which is being held in New Orleans and co-locating with the Department of Veteran’s Affairs’ National Veterans Small Business Engagement. The program consists of networking events, small business exhibits, a variety of speakers and much more.

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November 2: The 2nd Annual New Jersey Watershed Conference

We are a proud sponsor of this year’s New Jersey Watershed Conference, which is an educational event that aims to advance knowledge and communications on issues related to water quality and quantity across the state. The agenda features a variety of presentations from local experts on watershed management, stormwater, green infrastructure, and the problems and solutions related to the health of our watersheds. Princeton Hydro is exhibiting & our Marketing Coordinator, Kelsey Mattison, is leading a workshop on “How Social Media can be a Champion for your Watershed.”

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November 4 – 8: 2018 American Water Resources Association Conference

The AWRA’s 53rd Annual Water Resources Conference is being held in Baltimore, MD. Community, conversations and connections are highlights of every AWRA conference and the 2018 conference will provide plenty of opportunities for all three, including an exhibitor hall, networking events, and variety of presentations and technical sessions. Princeton Hydro’s Christiana Pollack, GISP, CFM is giving a presentation on flood assessment and mitigation. 

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November 8 – 10: Engineers Without Borders (EWB) USA Conference

The EWB, a nonprofit humanitarian organization that partners with developing communities worldwide in order to improve their quality of life, is hosting its USA National Conference in San Francisco.  The ​annual ​conference ​will ​address ​the ​theme ​“Engineers Unlock Potential.” ​Experts, ​practitioners, ​decision-makers, ​young ​professionals ​and ​students ​from ​a ​range ​of ​sectors ​will come together to network, exchange ideas, foster new thinking and develop solutions to the world’s most pressing infrastructure ​challenges. Princeton Hydro Staff Engineer Natalie Rodrigues, EIT, CPESC-IT, a EWB member, is attending the conference and presentation. Her session, titled “So You Think You Might Like to be an EWB Regional Officer or State Representative, ” is designed for those interested in taking the next step beyond Chapter or Project participation at EWB-USA, as well as for current Regional Steering Committee members who want to “amp up” their game.

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November 13: Society for American Military Engineers (SAME) Philadelphia Resiliency Symposium

SAME Philadelphia is hosting an all day symposium featuring experts on infrastructure resiliency in the face of extreme storms, flooding and other natural disasters. Presentation topics include, Flood Hazard Risk and Climate Change Effects for Bulk Oil Storage Facilities; Post-Storm Infrastructure Improvements and Stream Restoration; and Resilience Risk Analysis and Engineering. Princeton Hydro President Geoffrey Goll, P.E. is giving a presentation titled, “Enhancing Coastal Habitat & Increasing Resiliency through Beneficial Reuse of Dredged Material in New Jersey.” We hope to see you there!

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November 16: NJ Chapter American Water Resources Association (NJ-AWRA) Future Risk Symposium

As the frequency and intensity of storm events changes, how should watershed managers, engineers, and planners make informed decisions for the future? NJ-AWRA’s 2018 Future Risk Symposium, held at Duke Farms in Hillsborough, NJ, will focus on Future Flooding in Riverine Systems with presentations on climate trends, modeling, and planning that can be used in NJ to prepare for future flood events in New Jersey’s riverine systems. Princeton Hydro’s Christiana Pollack, GISP, CFM is giving a presentation on flood assessment, and the concepts and methods used to estimate flood risk for existing conditions and the year 2050.

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STAY TUNED FOR MORE EVENT SPOTLIGHTS!

Efforts to Manage Hydrilla in Harveys Lake Prove Difficult but Effective

Collaboration between state agencies and local organizations in Luzerne County bring in grant money to determine Hydrilla infestation levels in Harveys Lake. Treatment efforts are scheduled for 2019.

Story provided by Princeton Hydro Senior Limnologist Michael Hartshorne, and originally published in the Pennsylvania iMapInvasives Fall 2018 Newsletter

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata)

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) is a relatively new invasive plant in Pennsylvania with the first documented occurrence in 1989 in Adams County. Still, it was not until recently that lake managers, park rangers, and others in the natural resource field have turned their attention to this aggressive invader. Looking incredibly similar to our native waterweed (Elodea canadensis), hydrilla differs in that it is comprised of 4-8 whorled, toothed leaves in contrast to the smooth edged, 3-leaved whorl of E. canadensis.

 

Harveys Lake, located in the Borough of Harveys Lake (Luzerne County) is a large, deep glacial lake with limited littoral (i.e., shoreline) habitat. A significant body of work has been conducted at the lake with the original Phase I: Diagnostic-Feasibility Lake study conducted in 1992 and a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) issued for phosphorus in 2002.

From 2002 to present, Princeton Hydro has assisted the Borough in the restoration of the lake with a heavy focus on stormwater best management practices (BMPs) supplemented by routine, in-lake water quality monitoring. The goal of the storm water/watershed-based efforts was to reduce the lake’s existing, annual total Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) phosphorus load so it’s in full compliance with the established TMDL.

Mapped locations noted in 2014 and 2015 of hydrilla in Harveys Lake as documented in the Pennsylvania iMapInvasives database.

Over the last 15 years, the installation of these watershed-based projects has led to improved water quality conditions; specifically, phosphorus and algae concentrations have been reduced. While water quality conditions improved Harveys Lake, it was during one of the routine, summer water quality monitoring events conducted in July 2014 that a dense stand of hydrilla was noted at the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission’s public boat launch. More than likely, the plant entered the lake as a “hitchhiker” on the boat or trailer being launched from this public boat launch by someone visiting the lake.

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) Credit: Nick Decker, DCNR Bureau of State Parks

Since the initial identification and confirmation of the hydrilla, the Borough of Harveys Lake has worked in conjunction with the Harveys Lake Environmental Advisory Council, the Luzerne County Conservation District, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, and Princeton Hydro to secure funding for additional surveys to determine the spatial extent and density of growth followed by an aggressive eradication plan.

Grant funds already allocated to Harveys Lake under the state’s Non-Point Source Pollution Program were used to conduct a detailed boat-based and diving aquatic plant survey of Harveys Lake to delineate the distribution and relative abundance of the hydrilla in 2014. During these surveys, the distribution of the hydrilla was found to be limited to the northern portion of the lake with the heaviest densities just off the boat launch with plants observed growing in waters 20-25 feet deep.

A follow-up survey had shown hydrilla coverage to increase from 38% of surveyed sites to 58% of sites in 2016 with hydrilla now present at the lake’s outlet area. Spatial coverage of hydrilla increased from approximately 50 acres in 2014 to 210 acres in 2016, an increase of 160 acres.

This map shows the 2018 proposed treatment area of Harvey’s Lake. Due to funding issues, treatment is now scheduled for 2019. The current hydrilla distribution encompasses the entire littoral zone of Harvey’s Lake.

In hopes of preventing hydrilla escaping into the lake’s outlet stream, the Borough of Harveys Lake funded an emergency treatment of the two-acre outlet area in 2016 utilizing the systemic herbicide Sonar® (Fluridone). A follow-up treatment of 159 acres was conducted in 2017, again utilizing the Fluridone-based systemic herbicide.

The next treatment, which will attempt to cover the majority of the littoral habitat covered by hydrilla, is scheduled for late spring/early summer of 2019. It should be noted that Sonar® is being applied at a low concentration that is effective at eradicating the hydrilla, but will not negatively impact desirable native plant species.

The treatments conducted to date have documented some reductions in the vegetative coverage of hydrilla as well as tuber production relative to the original plant surveys conducted in 2016. However, it is recognized that it will take multiple years of treatment to eradicate this nuisance plant from the lake, as well as a highly proactive, interactive program to educate residents as well as visitors to the lake in preventing the re-introduction of this or other invasive species to Harveys Lake.

 

The successful, long-term improvement of a lake or pond requires a proactive management approach that addresses the beyond simply reacting to weed and algae growth and other symptoms of eutrophication. Our staff can design and implement holistic, ecologically-sound solutions for the most difficult weed and algae challenges. Visit our website to learn more about Princeton Hydro’s lake management services: http://bit.ly/pondlake

Michael Hartshorne‘s  primary areas of expertise include lake and stream diagnostic studies, TMDL development, watershed management, and small pond management and lake restoration. He is particularly skilled in all facets of water quality characterization, from field data collection to subsequent statistical analysis, modeling, technical reporting, and the selection and implementation of best management practices. He has extensive experience in utilizing water quality data in concert with statistical and modeling packages to support load reduction allocations for the achievement of water quality standards or tailored thresholds set forth to reduce the rate of cultural eutrophication. He also has significant experience in conducting detailed macrophyte, fishery, and benthic surveys.

October Events Spotlight: Conferences, Workshops & Galas

Throughout October, Princeton Hydro is proud to participate in a number of conferences and events on topics ranging from floodplain management to ecological restoration to dam removal:

October 10: Society for American Military Engineers (SAME) MEGA Maryland Small Business Conference

The conference, being held in Baltimore, gives small and minority businesses in the architecture, engineering and construction industries the opportunity to come together with federal agencies in order to showcase best practices and highlight future opportunities to work in the federal market. The program consists of networking events, a variety of speakers and small business exhibits. Be sure to stop by the Princeton Hydro booth to say hello to President Geoffrey Goll, P.E. and Communications Strategist Dana Patterson.

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October 11: Great Swamp Gala & Silent Auction

The Great Swamp Watershed Association, a nonprofit organization dedicated to protecting and improving the water resources of the Passaic River region, is hosting its 2018 Gala & Silent Auction. This year’s event is being, held in honor of former New Jersey Governor Thomas Kean, for his environmental leadership during his administration for enacting landmark protections for New Jersey’s shoreline and freshwater wetlands. present and future generations. The evening will include a cocktail hour, dinner banquet, expansive silent auction, and remarks delivered by Governor Kean. Princeton Hydro is proud to be a Benefactor of the event and looking forward to attending.

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October 11 – 13: Atlantic Estuarine Research Society (AERS) Fall Meeting

The theme of this year’s AERS Fall Meeting is “The power of framing your message: It’s not what you say, it’s how you say it!” Participants will gather at Stockton University to hear a variety of ignite-style presentations about misconceptions that typically surround scientific work, how to address them, and how to re-frame your message to be better understood by the general public and other non-scientists and increase stakeholder involvement. Princeton Hydro’s Senior Aquatics Scientist Jack Szczepanski, PhD will be attending the conference; chat with him to learn more about our pond and lake services.

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October 11 – 13: Society for Ecological Restoration (SER) New England 2018 Regional Conference

This year’s SER New England conference brings together stewards, researchers, students, regulators, community activists and practitioners to explore innovative ecological restoration techniques and projects that connect communities within and across ecosystems. The conference includes a variety of plenary talks, field trips, workshops and a keynote address, which will be given by Stewart Diemont of SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The keynote, titled “Learning from the People and the Land: Traditional Ecological Knowledge Toward Restoration of Ecosystems and of our Connection with Nature,” is free and open to the public.

Members of the Princeton Hydro are attending the conference and leading two sessions: Laura Wildman, Water Resources and Fisheries Engineer, is leading a workshop about implementing dam removal to restore rivers. Paul Woodworth, Fluvial Geomorphologist, is presenting on the post-dam removal monitoring of active and passive restoration approaches utilizing the Hyde Pond Dam removal as a tangible example.

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October 11: Hudson-Delaware Chapter of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (HDC-SETAC) 2018 Fall Workshop

HDC-SETAC is a professional society for scientists, engineers and related disciplines concerned with environmental science and health throughout the Hudson River and Delaware River metropolitan area. The 2018 Fall Workshop, being held at Villanova University, aims to enhance participants’ knowledge of “Harmful Algal Blooms and other Emerging Contaminants.” Princeton Hydro’s Director of Aquatic Programs Dr. Fred Lubnow is giving a presentation on “The Monitoring and Management of Cyanotoxins in Raw Water Supplies.” We hope to see you there! 

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October 12: Association of New Jersey Environmental Commissions (ANJEC) 2018 Environmental Congress

ANJEC, a nonprofit organization supporting efforts to protect the environment and preserve natural resources in communities throughout New Jersey, is hosting its 45th Annual Environmental Congress at Mercer County College. The Environmental Congress is an annual statewide gathering of environmental commissions, local officials, agencies, citizen groups and environmental organizations, which includes an exhibitors hall, farmer’s market, and workshops on a variety of current environmental topics. Princeton Hydro, a business member of the ANJEC, will be exhibiting during the event. Stop by the booth to say hello to Dr. Stephen J. Souza, Princeton Hydro Founder and ANJEC Board of Trustees member, and Dana Patterson, Communications Strategist for Princeton Hydro.

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October 23 – 25: New Jersey Association for Floodplain Management (NJAFM) 14th Annual Conference

NJAFM is hosting its 14th Annual Conference and Exhibition in Atlantic City, NJ. Participants will attend meetings and seminars covering topics, including hazard mitigation, flood insurance, infrastructure, mapping, planning, flood modeling, regulations, floodproofing, stormwater management, flood proofing, construction standards and more. Princeton Hydro’s Christiana Pollack, GISP, CFM and NJDEP’s Jessica Jahre, PP, AICP, CFM are giving a presentation, titled “A Flood Assessment for the Future,” for which they’ll showcase a flood assessment and flood mitigation analysis that Princeton Hydro performed in the Lower Moodna Creek Watershed.

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October 23: “Undamming the Hudson River” Film Screening and Panel Event, Free & Open the Public

Riverkeeper and Patagonia present the premiere of “Undamming the Hudson River,” a short documentary film by National Geographic filmmaker Jon Bowermaster showcasing Riverkeeper’s efforts to restore natural habitat by eliminating obsolete dams throughout the Hudson River Estuary. The screening will be followed by refreshments and a panel discussion, moderated by Bowermaster, featuring experts in the field and an audience Q&A. Panelists, include:

  • Laura Wildman, PE – Water Resources and Fisheries Engineer, Princeton Hydro
  • George Jackman – Habitat Restoration Manager, Riverkeeper
  • Gwen McDonald – Director of Green Projects, Save the Sound
  • Andy J. Danylchuk, PhD – Associate Professor of Fish Conservation, UMASS Amherst, and Patagonia Fly Fishing Ambassador

This event is free and open to the public and will take place at Patagonia SoHo, 72 Greene St, New York, NY 10012 from 7:30 – 10pm.

RSVP HERE

 

October 24: Mid-Atlantic Chapter of the Urban & Regional Information Systems Association (MAC URISA) 2018 Conference

MAC URISA 2018, the largest GIS conference in the Mid-Atlantic region, will showcase outstanding and innovative uses of GIS technologies in the area. The program includes a variety of presentations, breakout sessions, a GIS Techspo forum, lightening talks, and more. Thomas Hopper, Princeton Hydro’s GIS Analyst, is providing a technical demonstration on the Linkage Mapper GIS Toolkit, which was created by the Nature Conservancy to support habitat connectivity analyses.

LEARN MORE & REGISTER HERE

 

October 30 – November 2: North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) Conference

NALMS is hosting its 38th International Symposium in Cincinnati Ohio, titled “Now Trending: Innovations in Lake Management.” This year’s symposium includes a robust exhibit hall, a variety of field trips, and a wide array of presentations on topics ranging from the latest in monitoring technologies to combating invasive species to nutrient and water quality management and more. Princeton Hydro’s Dr. Fred Lubnow, Director of Aquatic Programs, and Dr. Stephen Souza, Founder, both of whom have been members of NALMS since its inception, are presenting and exhibiting during the conference.

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October 31 – November 2: Society for American Military Engineers (SAME) Small Business Conference (SBC)

SAME gives leaders from the A/E/C, environmental, and facility management industries the opportunity to come together with federal agencies in order to showcase best practices and highlight future opportunities for small businesses to work in the federal market. Princeton Hydro is proud to be attending the 2018 SAME SBC Conference, which is being held in New Orleans and co-locating with the Department of Veteran’s Affairs’ National Veterans Small Business Engagement. The program consists of networking events, small business exhibits, a variety of speakers and much more.

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STAY TUNED FOR OUR NOVEMBER EVENT SPOTLIGHT!

Innovative and Effective Approach to Wetland Restoration

The Pin Oak Forest Conservation Area is a 97-acre tract of open space that contains an extremely valuable wetland complex at the headwaters of Woodbridge Creek. The site is located in a heavily developed landscape of northern Middlesex County and is surrounded by industrial, commercial, and residential development. As such, the area suffered from wetland and stream channel degradation, habitat fragmentation, decreased biodiversity due to invasive species, and ecological impairment. The site was viewed as one of only a few large-scale freshwater wetland restoration opportunities remaining in this highly developed region of New Jersey.

Recognizing the unique qualities and great potential for rehabilitating and enhancing ecological function on this county-owned parkland, a dynamic partnership between government agencies, NGOs, and private industry, was formed to restore the natural function of the wetlands complex, transform the Pin Oak Forest site into thriving habitat teeming with wildlife, and steward this property back to life. The team designed a restoration plan that converted 28.94 acres of degraded freshwater wetlands, 0.33 acres of disturbed uplands dominated by invasive species, and 1,018 linear feet of degraded or channelized streams into a species-rich and highly functional headwater wetland complex.

BEFORE
View of stream restoration area upon commencement of excavation activities. View of containerized plant material staged prior to installation.

 

We used an innovative approach to restore the hydraulic connection of the stream channel with its floodplain in order to support wetland enhancement. Additionally, to further enhance wetlands with hydrologic uplift, the team incorporated microtopography techniques, which creates a variable surface that increases groundwater infiltration and niches that support multiple habitat communities. This resulted in a spectrum of wetland and stream habitats, including the establishment of a functional system of floodplain forest, scrub shrub, emergent wetlands and open water. Biodiversity was also increased through invasive species management, which opened the door for establishing key native flora such as red maple, pin oak, swamp white oak, and swamp rose. The restored headwater wetland system also provides stormwater quality management, floodplain storage, enhanced groundwater recharge onsite, and surface water flows to Woodbridge Creek.

Completed in 2017, the integrated complex of various wetland and upland communities continues to provide high quality habitat for a wide variety of wildlife species including the state-threatened Black-crowned Night heron and Red-headed Woodpecker. The work done at the site significantly enhanced ecological function, providing high-quality habitat on indefinitely-preserved public lands that offer countless benefits to both wildlife and the community.

AFTER
Post-restoration in 2018, looking Northeast. View of wetland enhancement approximately 2 months after completion of seeding and planting activities.

 

Public and private partnerships were and continue to be critical to the success of this project. The diverse partnership includes Middlesex County Office of Parks and Recreation, Woodbridge Township, Woodbridge River Watch, New Jersey Freshwater Wetlands Mitigation Council, GreenTrust Alliance, GreenVest, and Princeton Hydro. The partners joined together as stakeholders to identify long term restoration and stewardship goals for Pin Oak Forest Preserve, and nearly four years later, the partners all remain involved in various aspects of managing the property and this project itself, ranging from fiscal oversight by New Jersey Freshwater Wetland Mitigation Council and GreenTrust Alliance, to permit and landowner access coordination performed by Woodbridge Township and Middlesex County, or the ongoing stewardship, maintenance, and monitoring of the project and the larger park, being conducted by being conducted by GreenTrust Alliance, GreenVest, and NJ Department of Environmental Protection.

This project was funded through the New Jersey Freshwater Wetland In-Lieu Fee program. In 2014, GreenTrust Alliance, GreenVest, and Princeton Hydro secured $3.8 million dollars of funding on behalf of the Middlesex County Parks Department to restore three wetland sites, which included Pin Oak Forest.

The Pin Oak Forest project is a great model for showcasing a successful approach to the enhancement of public lands through a dynamic multidisciplinary, multi-stakeholder partnership. And, because of proper planning and design, it has become a thriving wildlife oasis tucked in the middle of a densely-populated suburban landscape.

Princeton Hydro specializes in the planning, design, permitting, implementing, and maintenance of wetland rehabilitation projects. To learn more about our wetland restoration, creation, and enhancement services, visit: bit.ly/PHwetland

Five Ways to Participate in Lakes Appreciation Month

#LakesAppreciation Month is a great time of year to enjoy your community lakes and help protect them. 

Lakes Appreciation Month was started by North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) to help bring attention to the countless benefits that lakes provide, to raise awareness of the many challenges facing our waterways, and encourage people to get involved in protecting these precious resources.  Unfortunately, the natural beauties that provide clean drinking water and wildlife habitat are at risk. Chemical pollutants, hydrocarbons, stormwater runoff, invasive aquatic species, and climate change are just a few of the the serious threats facing freshwater habitats.  So what can you do to to help?

We’ve put together five tips to help you celebrate Lakes Appreciation Month and get involved in protecting your favorite lakes:

1. Join the “Secchi Dip-In” contest: The “Secchi Dip-In” is an annual citizen science event where lake-goers and associations across North America use a simple Secchi disk to monitor the transparency or turbidity of their local waterway.  This year, Princeton Hydro is offering “Secchi Dip-In” participants a chance to win a $100 Amazon gift card and a one-year membership to NALMSEntry details here.

2. Organize a cleanup event: You can easily organize a lake clean-up in your community! Volunteer cleanups are a great way to get neighbors together around a good cause, raise awareness about the importance of protecting water quality, and make a positive impact on your community waterways. Organizing a volunteer event is a lot easier than you may think. Check out these tips for how to get started.

3. Get involved with your local lake: You can help support your favorite lake by joining a lake or watershed association. As an organized, collective group, lake associations work toward identifying and implementing strategies to protect water quality and ecological integrity. Lake associations monitor the condition of the lake, develop lake management plans, provide education about how to protect the lake, work with the government entities to improve fish habitat, and much more.

4. Monitor and report algae blooms: With the BloomWatch App, you can help the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency understand where and when potential harmful algae blooms (HABs) occur. HABs have the potential to produce toxins that can have serious negative impacts on the health of humans, pets, and our ecosystems. Learn more and download the app.

5. Get outside and enjoy: Whether you enjoy swimming, relaxing on the shoreline, canoeing, or fishing, there are countless ways you can get outside and enjoy your community lakes. Encourage others to appreciate their local waterbodies by taking photos of your lake adventures and sharing them on social media using the hashtag: #LakesAppreciation.

 

Go here to learn more about NALMS and get more ideas on how to celebrate your local lakes. If you’re interested in learning more about Princeton Hydro’s broad range of award-winning lake and pond management services, please contact us. 

Conservation Spotlight: Dunes at Shoal Harbor Shoreline Protection

Hurricane Sandy was the largest storm to ever originate in the Atlantic ocean. It badly damaged several countries in the Caribbean, caused over $50 billion in damages along the Eastern Seaboard, and left dozens dead. While hurricanes are a natural part of our climate system, research shows that intense hurricane activity has been on the rise in the North Atlantic since the 1970s. This trend is likely to be exacerbated by sea level rise and growing populations along coastlines. Natural coastal habitats — like wetlands and dunes — have proven to shield people from storms and sea-level rise, and have protected coastal communities from hundreds of millions of dollars in damage.

The Dunes at Shoal Harbor, a residential community in Monmouth County, New Jersey, is situated adjacent to both the Raritan Bay and the New York City Ferry channel. The site, previously utilized for industrial purposes, consisted of a partially demolished docking/berthing facility. A significantly undersized 6” diameter, 8-foot long stone revetment was also constructed on the property.

During Hurricane Sandy, the revetment failed and the community was subjected to direct wave attack and flooding. Homes were damaged, beach access was impaired, and the existing site-wide stormwater management basin and outfall was completely destroyed.

Princeton Hydro performed a wave attack analysis commensurate with a category three hurricane event, and used that data to complete a site design for shoreline protection. Consistent with the analysis, the site design includes the installation of a 15-foot rock revetment (one foot above the 100-year floodplain elevation) constructed with four-foot diameter boulders. The project also consists of replacing a failed elevated timber walkway with a concrete slab-on-grade walkway, restoring portions of the existing bulkhead, clearing invasive plants, and the complete restoration of the failed stormwater basin and outlet.

A rendering of the “Dunes at Shoal Harbor” shoreline protection design by Princeton Hydro.

The plan incorporates natural barriers to reduce the impacts of storm surges and protect the coastal community, including planting stabilizing coastal vegetation to prevent erosion and installing fencing along the dune to facilitate natural dune growth.

These measures will discourage future erosion of the shoreline, protect the residential community from future wave attacks and flooding, and create a stable habitat for native and migratory species.  The project is currently in the permitting phase, and will move to construction when all permits are obtained from local, state, and federal agencies.

This project is an great example of Princeton Hydro’s ability to coordinate multi-disciplinary projects in-house. Our Water Resources Engineering, Geosciences Engineering, and Natural Resources teams have collaborated efficiently to analyze, design, and permit this shoreline protection project. For more information on our engineering services, go here.

EMPLOYEE SPOTLIGHT: Meet the Interns

This summer, Princeton Hydro is hosting five interns, each of whom are passionate about protecting water quality and preserving our natural resources. From June to August, our interns will gain professional work experience in a variety of subject areas, ranging from stormwater management to dam restoration to ecological design to lake management and much more. They are assisting on a variety of projects, getting real-world practice in their areas of study, and working with a Princeton Hydro mentor who is helping them gain a deeper understanding of the business of environmental and engineering consulting and setting them up for career success.

 

Meet Our Interns:

 

Ivy Babson, Environmental Science Intern

Ivy is a rising senior from University of Vermont, majoring in Environmental Science with a concentration in Ecological Design, and minor in Geospatial Technologies. In the future, she hopes to implement ecological design in urban areas and create a sustainable environment that would allow future generations to care for and interact with a healthy earth.

Ivy will work alongside Senior Aquatics Scientist Dr. Jack Szczepanski and the Princeton Hydro Aquatics team on projects related to lake and pond management, including fisheries management, data collection and analysis, and water quality monitoring. Recently, Ivy assisted Aquatic Ecologist Jesse Smith in completing an electrofishing survey in a Northern New Jersey river.

Learn more about Ivy.

 

Marissa Ciocco, Geotechnical Intern

Marissa is entering her fourth year at Rowan University where she is a Civil and Environmental Engineering major with a Bantivoglio Honors Concentration. In the future, Marissa hopes to work towards creating a greener and safer environment.

During her internship, Marissa will be mentored by Jim Hunt P.E., Geotechnical Engineer, who has already engaged Marissa in a few construction oversight projects, including a culvert restoration effort in Medford Lakes, NJ and observing geotechnical borings in Evesham, NJ.

Learn more about Marissa.

 

Will Kelleher, Environmental Science Intern

Will is a rising junior at the University of Vermont, studying Environmental Science with a concentration in Water Resources. His current career interests are focused around wetlands restoration and water chemistry. He recently spent two weeks studying water management and sustainable technology in the Netherlands and in the past has helped with biological and chemical stream monitoring with Raritan Headwaters Association.

Mentored by Senior Aquatics Scientist Dr. Jack Szczepanski, Will’s area of focus will be lake and pond management. He’ll spend most of his time in the field alongside members of the Aquatics Team collecting water quality data and mapping aquatic plants, learning about aquatic habitat creation, and implementing various invasive aquatic weed control efforts.

Learn more about Will.

 

Veronica Moditz, Water Resources Intern

We are thrilled to welcome back Veronica, who interned with us last year, and is in her final year at Stevens Institute of Technology, pursuing a Bachelor Degree in Environmental Engineering and a Master Degree in Sustainability Management. She is currently the secretary for Steven’s Environmental Engineering Professional Society chapter. In the future, she hopes to work on more sustainable approach to engineering problems.

Veronica will work alongside Project Engineer and Construction Specialist Amy McNamara, EIT, and Mary L. Paist-Goldman, P.E., Director of Engineering Services, on a variety of environmental engineering projects. Most recently, she assisted with a construction oversight and stormwater management project in Morris County, NJ.

Learn more about Veronica.

 

Tucker Simmons, Water Resources Engineer

Tucker is a Civil and Environmental Engineering major at Rowan University focusing on Water Resources Engineering. His Junior Clinic experience includes the study of Bio-Cemented sand and the Remote Sensing of Landfill Fires. In the future, Tucker hopes to work on creating a more sustainable environment.

Throughout his internship, Tucker will be mentored by Dr. Clay Emerson, P.E. CFM, Senior Water Resources Engineer, and will work on projects related to stormwater management, hydrologic and hydraulic analysis, and various aspects of environmental restoration. He recently assisted with a sink hole inspection in Tredyffrin Township, PA and mapped the water depths of a lake in Bucks County, PA.

Learn more about Tucker.

 

Stay tuned for updates on what our interns are working on!