*FREE* Download: Using Flood Models to Mitigate Flood Risk

Back in September, NEIWPCC offered a free research webinar on modeling and flood mitigation recommendations for a forested and urban Hudson River tributary watershed. The webinar looked at the Moodna Creek Watershed and Flood Mitigation Assessment and described how flood models were used to inform recommendations for reducing and mitigating existing and anticipated flood risk. This free webinar was hosted by our Environmental Scientist & GIS Manager, Christiana Pollack, GISP, CFM, and Jessica Jahre, CFM, AICP, a Planner with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.

Pollack and Jahre, authors of the assessment, described how they used flood models to inform recommendations for reducing and mitigating existing/anticipated flood risk in the Moodna Creek Watershed. The flood mitigation assessment was conducted by Princeton Hydro and GreenVest, and funded by NEIWPCC through the New York Department of Environmental Conservation’s Hudson River Estuary Program.

If you missed the webinar, but are still interested in flood mitigation and this study, you can download a PDF of the Powerpoint below. With informative graphics and intriguing photos, this presentation will introduce you to flood mitigation strategies and techniques for many different needs.Princeton Hydro specializes in flood planning, policy, analysis, design and risk mitigation services.  To learn more our floodplain management services, visit: bit.ly/floodmanagement

Two-Part Blog Series: Flood Assessment, Mitigation & Management

In this two part blog series, we showcase our work in the Moodna Creek Watershed in order to explore some of the concepts and methods used to estimate flood risk for existing conditions and the year 2050 and develop a flood management strategy (Part One), and traditional engineering and natural systems solutions used to manage and reduce flood risk (Part Two).

Part One: Flood Assessment & Mitigation Analysis in the Moodna Creek Watershed

The greater Moodna Creek watershed covers 180 square miles of eastern Orange County, NY. The watershed includes 22 municipalities and hundreds of streams before joining the Hudson River. This region has seen tremendous growth in recent years with the expansion of regional transit networks and critical infrastructure.

The Moodna Creek watershed can be split into two sub-basins — the Upper Moodna Creek and the Lower Moodna Creek. In the span of 15 months, Hurricane Irene, Tropical Storm Lee, and Hurricane Sandy each have caused significant flooding throughout the Moodna Creek watershed, damaging public facilities, roadways, and private properties. Both sub-basin communities have noted a concern about increased flood risk as more development occurs.

As global temperatures rise, climate models are predicting more intense rainfall events. And, the flood risk for communities along waterways — like the Moodna Creek watershed — will likely increase as time passes. In order to understand existing and future risk from flood events in this flood-prone area, a flood risk management strategy needed to be developed. The strategy uses a cost-benefit analysis to review the feasibility of each measure and the overall impact in reducing flood risks.

With funds provided from a 2016 grant program sponsored by the New England Interstate Waters Pollution Control Commission (NEIWPCC) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation’s (NYCDEC) Hudson River Estuary Program (HEP), Princeton Hydro along with a variety of project partners completed a flood assessment and flood mitigation analysis specific to the Lower Moodna Creek watershed.

Let’s take a closer look at our work with the Lower Moodna Creek watershed, and explore some of the methods used to estimate flood risk and develop a flood management strategy:

Lower Moodna Creek Watershed Flood Assessment & Analysis

The primary Lower Moodna Creek project goals were to assess flood vulnerabilities and propose flood mitigation solutions that consider both traditional engineering strategies and natural systems solution approaches (land preservation, wetland/forest restoration, green infrastructure and green water management). The project team focused on ways to use the natural environment to reduce risk.  Instead of strictly focusing on just Moonda Creek, the team took a holistic approach which included all areas that drain into the river too. These analyses were incorporated into a Flood Assessment Master Plan and Flood Mitigation Plan, which will serve as a road map to reducing flooding issues within the watershed.

Managing Flood Risk

The first step in managing flood risk is to understand what type of exposure the communities face. The Moodna Creek project modeled flooding within the watershed during normal rain events, extreme rain events, and future rain events with two primary goals in mind:

Visual assessment being conducted in flood-prone areas of Moodna Creek Watershed.

  • Assess the facilities, infrastructure, and urban development that are at risk from flooding along the Moodna Creek and its tributaries within the study area.
  • Develop a series of hydrologic and hydraulic models to assess the extent of potential flooding from the 10-year (10%), 100-year (1%),  and 500-year (0.2%) storm recurrence intervals within the study area. The modeling includes flows for these storm events under existing conditions and also hypothetical scenarios with predicted increases in precipitation and population growth.

 

The project team used these models and data to propose and evaluate a series of design measures that help reduce and mitigate existing and anticipated flood risk within the study area. Where possible, the proposed solutions prioritized approaches that protect and/or mirror natural flood protection mechanisms within the watershed such as floodplain re-connection and wetland establishment. In addition to flood protection, the project components also provide water quality protection, aesthetics and recreation, pollutant reduction, and wildlife habitat creation.

Land Use and Zoning

Zoning is a powerful tool that determines a region’s exposure to hazards and risk. Zoning determines which uses are permitted, or encouraged, to be built in moderate and high-risk areas. It also prevents certain uses, such as critical facilities, from being built in those areas. Zoning is also a determinant of a region’s character and identity.

In the Lower Moodna Creek watershed, a large majority (82%) of land is zoned for residential use. However, in the flood-prone areas, there is a higher ratio of areas zoned for non-residential uses (commercial, industrial) than in areas that are zoned for potential future development. Specifically, within the 10-year storm recurrence floodplain, 30% of the land is zoned for industrial use. This is likely because several facilities, such as wastewater treatment plants and mills, require access to the river and were strategically developed to be within immediate proximity of waterfront access. The Lower Moodna zoning analysis demonstrated a general preference within watershed to limit residential use of flood-prone areas. 

Land Preservation

Preserving land allows for natural stormwater management, as well as limits the exposure of development, and minimizes sources of erosion within the watershed. Preserved land also maintains the hydrologic and ecologic function of the land by allowing rainwater to be absorbed or retained where it falls and thus minimizing run-off. If the land within the floodplain is preserved, it will never be developed, and therefore the risk — a calculation of rate exposure and the value of the potential damage — is eliminated.  Therefore, land preservation, both within the floodplains and in upland areas, is the best way to minimize flood damage.

Conserved riparian areas also generate a range of ecosystem services, in addition to the hazard mitigation benefits they provide. Protected forests, grasslands, and wetlands along rivers and streams can improve water quality, provide habitat to many species, and offer a wide range of recreational opportunities. Given the co-benefits that protected lands provide, there is growing interest in floodplain conservation as a flood damage reduction strategy.

Within the mapped Lower Moodna floodplains, our assessment determined that there appears to be a slight priority for preserving land most at-risk for flooding. This is likely a consequence of prioritizing land that is closest to riparian areas and preserving wetland areas, which are the most likely to experience flooding. Within the floodplains for the 10-year storm, approximately 22.7% is preserved. For the 100-year storm, approximately 21.2% of the land is preserved. Within the 500-year storm, this number drops slightly to 20.3%. These numbers are so close in part because the difference between the 10-year, 100-year, and 500-year floodplains are small in many areas of the watershed.

Hydrology and Hydraulics

Hydrology is the scientific study of the waters of the earth, with a particular focus on how rainfall and evaporation affect the flow of water in streams and storm drains. Hydraulics is the engineering analysis of the flow of water in channels, pipelines, and other hydraulic structures. Hydrology and hydraulics analyses are a key part of flood management.

As part of this flood assessment, Princeton Hydro created a series of hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) models to assess the extent of potential flooding from the 10-year, 100-year, and 500-year storm recurrence intervals within the Lower Moodna. The modeling, which included flows for these storm events under existing conditions and future conditions based on predicted increases in precipitation and population growth, makes it easier to assess what new areas are most impacted in the future.

These are just a few of the assessments we conducted to analyze the ways in which flooding within the watershed may be affected by changes in land use, precipitation, and mitigation efforts. The flood models we developed informed our recommendations and proposed flood mitigation solutions for reducing and mitigating existing and anticipated flood risk.

Stay tuned for Part Two of this blog series in which we will explore flood risk-reduction strategies that include both traditional engineering and natural systems solutions. For more information about Princeton Hydro’s flood management services, go here: http://bit.ly/PHfloodplain.

 

November Events Spotlight: Conferences Throughout the Country

Princeton Hydro is participating in a variety of conferences taking place throughout the country that address topics ranging from lake management to green infrastructure resiliency:

October 30 – November 2: North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) Conference

NALMS is hosting its 38th International Symposium in Cincinnati Ohio, titled “Now Trending: Innovations in Lake Management.” This year’s symposium includes a robust exhibit hall, a variety of field trips, and a wide array of presentations on topics ranging from the latest in monitoring technologies to combating invasive species to nutrient and water quality management and more. Princeton Hydro’s Dr. Fred Lubnow, Director of Aquatic Programs, and Dr. Stephen Souza, Founder, both of whom have been members of NALMS since its inception, are presenting and exhibiting during the conference.

LEARN MORE

 

October 31 – November 2: Society for American Military Engineers (SAME) Small Business Conference (SBC)

SAME gives leaders from the A/E/C, environmental, and facility management industries the opportunity to come together with federal agencies in order to showcase best practices and highlight future opportunities for small businesses to work in the federal market. Princeton Hydro is proud to be attending the 2018 SAME SBC Conference, which is being held in New Orleans and co-locating with the Department of Veteran’s Affairs’ National Veterans Small Business Engagement. The program consists of networking events, small business exhibits, a variety of speakers and much more.

LEARN MORE & REGISTER

 

November 2: The 2nd Annual New Jersey Watershed Conference

We are a proud sponsor of this year’s New Jersey Watershed Conference, which is an educational event that aims to advance knowledge and communications on issues related to water quality and quantity across the state. The agenda features a variety of presentations from local experts on watershed management, stormwater, green infrastructure, and the problems and solutions related to the health of our watersheds. Princeton Hydro is exhibiting & our Marketing Coordinator, Kelsey Mattison, is leading a workshop on “How Social Media can be a Champion for your Watershed.”

LEARN MORE & REGISTER

 

November 4 – 8: 2018 American Water Resources Association Conference

The AWRA’s 53rd Annual Water Resources Conference is being held in Baltimore, MD. Community, conversations and connections are highlights of every AWRA conference and the 2018 conference will provide plenty of opportunities for all three, including an exhibitor hall, networking events, and variety of presentations and technical sessions. Princeton Hydro’s Christiana Pollack, GISP, CFM is giving a presentation on flood assessment and mitigation. 

LEARN MORE & REGISTER

 

November 8 – 10: Engineers Without Borders (EWB) USA Conference

The EWB, a nonprofit humanitarian organization that partners with developing communities worldwide in order to improve their quality of life, is hosting its USA National Conference in San Francisco.  The ​annual ​conference ​will ​address ​the ​theme ​“Engineers Unlock Potential.” ​Experts, ​practitioners, ​decision-makers, ​young ​professionals ​and ​students ​from ​a ​range ​of ​sectors ​will come together to network, exchange ideas, foster new thinking and develop solutions to the world’s most pressing infrastructure ​challenges. Princeton Hydro Staff Engineer Natalie Rodrigues, EIT, CPESC-IT, a EWB member, is attending the conference and presentation. Her session, titled “So You Think You Might Like to be an EWB Regional Officer or State Representative, ” is designed for those interested in taking the next step beyond Chapter or Project participation at EWB-USA, as well as for current Regional Steering Committee members who want to “amp up” their game.

LEARN MORE & REGISTER

 

November 13: Society for American Military Engineers (SAME) Philadelphia Resiliency Symposium

SAME Philadelphia is hosting an all day symposium featuring experts on infrastructure resiliency in the face of extreme storms, flooding and other natural disasters. Presentation topics include, Flood Hazard Risk and Climate Change Effects for Bulk Oil Storage Facilities; Post-Storm Infrastructure Improvements and Stream Restoration; and Resilience Risk Analysis and Engineering. Princeton Hydro President Geoffrey Goll, P.E. is giving a presentation titled, “Enhancing Coastal Habitat & Increasing Resiliency through Beneficial Reuse of Dredged Material in New Jersey.” We hope to see you there!

LEARN MORE & REGISTER

 

November 16: NJ Chapter American Water Resources Association (NJ-AWRA) Future Risk Symposium

As the frequency and intensity of storm events changes, how should watershed managers, engineers, and planners make informed decisions for the future? NJ-AWRA’s 2018 Future Risk Symposium, held at Duke Farms in Hillsborough, NJ, will focus on Future Flooding in Riverine Systems with presentations on climate trends, modeling, and planning that can be used in NJ to prepare for future flood events in New Jersey’s riverine systems. Princeton Hydro’s Christiana Pollack, GISP, CFM is giving a presentation on flood assessment, and the concepts and methods used to estimate flood risk for existing conditions and the year 2050.

LEARN MORE & REGISTER

 

STAY TUNED FOR MORE EVENT SPOTLIGHTS!

Efforts to Manage Hydrilla in Harveys Lake Prove Difficult but Effective

Collaboration between state agencies and local organizations in Luzerne County bring in grant money to determine Hydrilla infestation levels in Harveys Lake. Treatment efforts are scheduled for 2019.

Story provided by Princeton Hydro Senior Limnologist Michael Hartshorne, and originally published in the Pennsylvania iMapInvasives Fall 2018 Newsletter

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata)

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) is a relatively new invasive plant in Pennsylvania with the first documented occurrence in 1989 in Adams County. Still, it was not until recently that lake managers, park rangers, and others in the natural resource field have turned their attention to this aggressive invader. Looking incredibly similar to our native waterweed (Elodea canadensis), hydrilla differs in that it is comprised of 4-8 whorled, toothed leaves in contrast to the smooth edged, 3-leaved whorl of E. canadensis.

 

Harveys Lake, located in the Borough of Harveys Lake (Luzerne County) is a large, deep glacial lake with limited littoral (i.e., shoreline) habitat. A significant body of work has been conducted at the lake with the original Phase I: Diagnostic-Feasibility Lake study conducted in 1992 and a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) issued for phosphorus in 2002.

From 2002 to present, Princeton Hydro has assisted the Borough in the restoration of the lake with a heavy focus on stormwater best management practices (BMPs) supplemented by routine, in-lake water quality monitoring. The goal of the storm water/watershed-based efforts was to reduce the lake’s existing, annual total Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) phosphorus load so it’s in full compliance with the established TMDL.

Mapped locations noted in 2014 and 2015 of hydrilla in Harveys Lake as documented in the Pennsylvania iMapInvasives database.

Over the last 15 years, the installation of these watershed-based projects has led to improved water quality conditions; specifically, phosphorus and algae concentrations have been reduced. While water quality conditions improved Harveys Lake, it was during one of the routine, summer water quality monitoring events conducted in July 2014 that a dense stand of hydrilla was noted at the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission’s public boat launch. More than likely, the plant entered the lake as a “hitchhiker” on the boat or trailer being launched from this public boat launch by someone visiting the lake.

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) Credit: Nick Decker, DCNR Bureau of State Parks

Since the initial identification and confirmation of the hydrilla, the Borough of Harveys Lake has worked in conjunction with the Harveys Lake Environmental Advisory Council, the Luzerne County Conservation District, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, and Princeton Hydro to secure funding for additional surveys to determine the spatial extent and density of growth followed by an aggressive eradication plan.

Grant funds already allocated to Harveys Lake under the state’s Non-Point Source Pollution Program were used to conduct a detailed boat-based and diving aquatic plant survey of Harveys Lake to delineate the distribution and relative abundance of the hydrilla in 2014. During these surveys, the distribution of the hydrilla was found to be limited to the northern portion of the lake with the heaviest densities just off the boat launch with plants observed growing in waters 20-25 feet deep.

A follow-up survey had shown hydrilla coverage to increase from 38% of surveyed sites to 58% of sites in 2016 with hydrilla now present at the lake’s outlet area. Spatial coverage of hydrilla increased from approximately 50 acres in 2014 to 210 acres in 2016, an increase of 160 acres.

This map shows the 2018 proposed treatment area of Harvey’s Lake. Due to funding issues, treatment is now scheduled for 2019. The current hydrilla distribution encompasses the entire littoral zone of Harvey’s Lake.

In hopes of preventing hydrilla escaping into the lake’s outlet stream, the Borough of Harveys Lake funded an emergency treatment of the two-acre outlet area in 2016 utilizing the systemic herbicide Sonar® (Fluridone). A follow-up treatment of 159 acres was conducted in 2017, again utilizing the Fluridone-based systemic herbicide.

The next treatment, which will attempt to cover the majority of the littoral habitat covered by hydrilla, is scheduled for late spring/early summer of 2019. It should be noted that Sonar® is being applied at a low concentration that is effective at eradicating the hydrilla, but will not negatively impact desirable native plant species.

The treatments conducted to date have documented some reductions in the vegetative coverage of hydrilla as well as tuber production relative to the original plant surveys conducted in 2016. However, it is recognized that it will take multiple years of treatment to eradicate this nuisance plant from the lake, as well as a highly proactive, interactive program to educate residents as well as visitors to the lake in preventing the re-introduction of this or other invasive species to Harveys Lake.

 

The successful, long-term improvement of a lake or pond requires a proactive management approach that addresses the beyond simply reacting to weed and algae growth and other symptoms of eutrophication. Our staff can design and implement holistic, ecologically-sound solutions for the most difficult weed and algae challenges. Visit our website to learn more about Princeton Hydro’s lake management services: http://bit.ly/pondlake

Michael Hartshorne‘s  primary areas of expertise include lake and stream diagnostic studies, TMDL development, watershed management, and small pond management and lake restoration. He is particularly skilled in all facets of water quality characterization, from field data collection to subsequent statistical analysis, modeling, technical reporting, and the selection and implementation of best management practices. He has extensive experience in utilizing water quality data in concert with statistical and modeling packages to support load reduction allocations for the achievement of water quality standards or tailored thresholds set forth to reduce the rate of cultural eutrophication. He also has significant experience in conducting detailed macrophyte, fishery, and benthic surveys.

Mitigation Milestone Reached at Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Site

Photo courtesy of GreenVest

Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Project will Restore and Protect 80+ Acres of Mattawoman Creek, Chesapeake Bay’s Most Productive Tributary

As one of the Chesapeake Bay’s most productive tributaries and a vital part of Maryland’s natural resources, Mattawoman Creek supports some of the largest populations of finfish, amphibians, and birds in the state. A collaborative team of private and public sector entities have designed the “Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Site” in Pomfret, Charles County, Maryland, an effort that will enhance or create 64+ acres of wetlands and restore nearly 3,800 linear feet of this perennial stream.  With over 28,500 native trees and shrubs to be planted, this mitigation project will result in 80+ acres of continuous, forested wetland with complex and diverse vegetative communities. It is expected to provide a wide array of habitat to resident and transient wildlife, including birds, reptiles, invertebrates, amphibians and rare, threatened and endangered species.

Unique to this project, Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Site is Maryland’s first-ever Umbrella Mitigation Banking Instrument (UMBI) for federal and other government agency use.   A UMBI is the bundling of multiple mitigation banks into one agreement in order to streamline the regulatory approval process, thereby eliminating steps and involving fewer resources. The Maryland UMBI document helps the USAF and other public agencies secure certainty of cost and schedule, facilitate timely permit issuance, and expedite the satisfaction of their permitted requirements for planned capital improvement projects. This approach also maximizes the scale of restoration and resulting land protection and efforts, creating contiguous blocks of habitat with greatly enhanced benefits compared to single, permittee-responsible projects. This precedent was a result of a partnership between United States Air Force (USAF) and Joint Base Andrews (JBA), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE), GreenTrust Alliance, GreenVest, and Princeton Hydro.

Projects completed under the UMBI will reduce federal and state workload expediting the regulatory review and issuance of permits by the MDE and USACE. Additionally, projects completed under this UMBI will aid in compliance with the Federal Paperwork Reduction Act where federal regulatory staff can evaluate success and performance issues for multiple permittees at one single habitat restoration or mitigation site. In addition, federal costs are capped, and liabilities  are transferred through to GreenVest, the private sector operator, and GreenTrust Alliance, the nonprofit bank sponsor, who will also serve as the long-term steward of sites restored under this program.

Pictured is the southern restoration area after
sorghum germination, prior to wetland creation
and reestablishment.
A function-based stream assessment was
performed on the degraded channel.

 

Photo courtesy of GreenVestDesign, engineering/modeling, and permitting of the site was completed by  Princeton Hydro and GreenVest under our currently Ecosystem Restoration contract with the USACE. Princeton Hydro also provided an Environmental Assessment and Environmental Baseline Survey, and conducted a geotechnical investigation, which included the advancement of test pits, visual and manual investigation techniques and logging, infiltration testing, laboratory soils testing, and seasonal high-water table estimations.

A wetland water budget was also developed for the proposed wetland creation and restoration to determine if sufficient water is available to establish or reestablish wetlands on the site. It was also used to inform design development including proposed grading and plant community composition. The establishment and re-establishment of wetlands on the site will be accomplished through directed grading, ditch plugging and stream restoration designed to maximize the retention of surface water, floodplain re-connection, and groundwater inputs.

Highlights from the Mattawoman Creek Wetland and Stream Mitigation project:
  • 80 acres of land were placed into conservation easement and removed from active row crop production and cattle pasture. The easement, which is held by GreenTrust Alliance, provides permanent protection for all 80 acres.
  • Over 64 acres of wetlands will be restored, created, enhanced or preserved, which will sequester approximately 75 tons of carbon per year.
  • 3,798 linear feet of perennial stream will be restored by re-establishing, historic floodplain access during more frequent storm events, stabilizing hydraulics and geomorphology, and adding aquatic habitat value.
  • Full integration of the wetland and stream restoration elements will occur exponentially, increasing anticipated functions and values in the post construction condition. Functions include: storm damage and flood attenuation, groundwater recharge and discharge, nutrient cycling and sequestration, local water quality improvement, and wildlife habitat enhancements.
  • This project will also create and enhance the forested wetland and stream habitat for the State-listed Threatened Selys’ Sundragon (Helocordulia selysii).
  • As part of the site design, over 28,500 native trees and shrubs will be planted.
  • The Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Site is located within a Tier 3 Biodiversity Conservation Network area. These areas are classified by the Department of Natural Resources as “highly significant for biodiversity conservation” and are priority conservation areas that support critical species and habitats.
  • The project will yield advanced mitigation values: 7.913 in wetland credits and 1,595 in stream credits. These credits are durable and will be available for JBA’s use in order to satisfy permitted impacts associated with planned capital improvement projects.

Over 6,000 acres (25%) of the Mattawoman Creek watershed has been protected by public ownership and various conservation and agricultural easements, which, in addition to the Mattawoman Creek Mitigation Site, help ensure that Mattawoman Creek forever remains a high-quality destination for outdoor recreation.

Princeton Hydro specializes in the planning, design, permitting, implementing, and maintenance of tidal and freshwater wetland rehabilitation projects. To learn more about our wetland restoration, creation, and enhancement services, visit: http://bit.ly/PHwetland

Princeton Hydro Joins American Sustainable Business Council

Princeton Hydro is proud to join the American Sustainable Business Council (ASBC), a coalition of businesses that prioritizes, “a triple bottom line of People, Planet, and Profit.” ASBC works to combat climate change by divesting from fossil fuels and investing in climate solutions, and passing carbon tax legislature at both federal and state levels. ASBC also works to address many other issues related to public health and the economy.

As a sustainable business headquartered in New Jersey, Princeton Hydro is also affiliated with the New Jersey Sustainable Business Council, the state chapter of the ASBC. In addition to joining the councils, Princeton Hydro’s President, Geoffrey Goll, P.E. joined the steering committee for ASBC’s “Clean Water is Good for Business” campaign.

“At Princeton Hydro, we are passionate about the protection of natural resources, fostering stewardship, and designing and conducting business in a sustainable manner. We believe in affecting positive change in our world for people and the environment,” said Goll. “We’re excited to align ourselves with an organization that reflects our core values, and we look forward to future sustainable business opportunities.”

The Clean Water is Good for Business campaign focuses on the Delaware River Watershed, a region that Princeton Hydro is actively working to protect and enhance. The campaign focuses on the importance of clean water, not just for human health, but for business health as well. Even companies that don’t directly rely on clean water for production of goods still need it to sustain day-to-day functions and keep employees healthy. ASBC recently released its Business Case where it lists the top priorities of the campaign as creating a comprehensive strategy, growing funding for conservation, and decreasing stormwater runoff.

Clean water is not only the key foundation to life itself, but a sustainable economy as well. Without clean water, we put our natural resources, businesses, and communities at risk. Protecting water quality is a long-term effort that requires continued investment, monitoring, and evaluation.

Princeton Hydro offers expertise in water resources management and engineering, ecosystems, and geotechnical investigations and design. Our staff provides a full suite of services throughout the Mid-Atlantic and New England states. Our capabilities are reflected in our award-winning projects that consistently produce real-world, cost-effective solutions. If you’re interested in learning how Princeton Hydro can help you, please contact us.

Innovative and Effective Approach to Wetland Restoration

The Pin Oak Forest Conservation Area is a 97-acre tract of open space that contains an extremely valuable wetland complex at the headwaters of Woodbridge Creek. The site is located in a heavily developed landscape of northern Middlesex County and is surrounded by industrial, commercial, and residential development. As such, the area suffered from wetland and stream channel degradation, habitat fragmentation, decreased biodiversity due to invasive species, and ecological impairment. The site was viewed as one of only a few large-scale freshwater wetland restoration opportunities remaining in this highly developed region of New Jersey.

Recognizing the unique qualities and great potential for rehabilitating and enhancing ecological function on this county-owned parkland, a dynamic partnership between government agencies, NGOs, and private industry, was formed to restore the natural function of the wetlands complex, transform the Pin Oak Forest site into thriving habitat teeming with wildlife, and steward this property back to life. The team designed a restoration plan that converted 28.94 acres of degraded freshwater wetlands, 0.33 acres of disturbed uplands dominated by invasive species, and 1,018 linear feet of degraded or channelized streams into a species-rich and highly functional headwater wetland complex.

BEFORE
View of stream restoration area upon commencement of excavation activities. View of containerized plant material staged prior to installation.

 

We used an innovative approach to restore the hydraulic connection of the stream channel with its floodplain in order to support wetland enhancement. Additionally, to further enhance wetlands with hydrologic uplift, the team incorporated microtopography techniques, which creates a variable surface that increases groundwater infiltration and niches that support multiple habitat communities. This resulted in a spectrum of wetland and stream habitats, including the establishment of a functional system of floodplain forest, scrub shrub, emergent wetlands and open water. Biodiversity was also increased through invasive species management, which opened the door for establishing key native flora such as red maple, pin oak, swamp white oak, and swamp rose. The restored headwater wetland system also provides stormwater quality management, floodplain storage, enhanced groundwater recharge onsite, and surface water flows to Woodbridge Creek.

Completed in 2017, the integrated complex of various wetland and upland communities continues to provide high quality habitat for a wide variety of wildlife species including the state-threatened Black-crowned Night heron and Red-headed Woodpecker. The work done at the site significantly enhanced ecological function, providing high-quality habitat on indefinitely-preserved public lands that offer countless benefits to both wildlife and the community.

AFTER
Post-restoration in 2018, looking Northeast. View of wetland enhancement approximately 2 months after completion of seeding and planting activities.

 

Public and private partnerships were and continue to be critical to the success of this project. The diverse partnership includes Middlesex County Office of Parks and Recreation, Woodbridge Township, Woodbridge River Watch, New Jersey Freshwater Wetlands Mitigation Council, GreenTrust Alliance, GreenVest, and Princeton Hydro. The partners joined together as stakeholders to identify long term restoration and stewardship goals for Pin Oak Forest Preserve, and nearly four years later, the partners all remain involved in various aspects of managing the property and this project itself, ranging from fiscal oversight by New Jersey Freshwater Wetland Mitigation Council and GreenTrust Alliance, to permit and landowner access coordination performed by Woodbridge Township and Middlesex County, or the ongoing stewardship, maintenance, and monitoring of the project and the larger park, being conducted by being conducted by GreenTrust Alliance, GreenVest, and NJ Department of Environmental Protection.

This project was funded through the New Jersey Freshwater Wetland In-Lieu Fee program. In 2014, GreenTrust Alliance, GreenVest, and Princeton Hydro secured $3.8 million dollars of funding on behalf of the Middlesex County Parks Department to restore three wetland sites, which included Pin Oak Forest.

The Pin Oak Forest project is a great model for showcasing a successful approach to the enhancement of public lands through a dynamic multidisciplinary, multi-stakeholder partnership. And, because of proper planning and design, it has become a thriving wildlife oasis tucked in the middle of a densely-populated suburban landscape.

Princeton Hydro specializes in the planning, design, permitting, implementing, and maintenance of wetland rehabilitation projects. To learn more about our wetland restoration, creation, and enhancement services, visit: bit.ly/PHwetland

Dam Removal Underway in Watertown, Connecticut

Deconstruction of the Heminway Pond Dam, Watertown, CT on July 16, 2018.

As dams age and decay, they can become public safety hazards, presenting a failure risk and flooding danger. According to American Rivers, “more than 90,000 dams in the country are no longer serving the purpose that they were built to provide decades or centuries ago.” Dam removal has increasingly become the best option for property owners who can no longer afford the rising cost of maintenance and repair work required to maintain these complex structures.

Dams can also cause environmental issues such as blocking the movement of fish and other aquatic species, inundating river habitat, impairing water quality, and altering the flow necessary to sustain river life. Removing nonfunctional, outdated dams can bring a river back to its natural state and significantly increase biodiversity for the surrounding watershed.

A view from the site of the Heminway Pond Dam removal on July 19, 2018.

Currently, work is underway in Watertown, Connecticut to remove the Heminway Pond Dam, which restricts fish passage in Steele Brook, creates a pond with increased water temperatures and high bacterial levels due to high geese populations, and encourages deposition of iron precipitate in the stream channel just downstream of the dam.

Princeton Hydro designed the engineering plans, managed permitting and is now overseeing construction for the removal project. The removal of the Heminway Pond Dam is identified as an integral component in addressing water quality impairment between the dam and Echo Lake Road.

CT DEEP recently published this piece encapsulating the Heminway Pond Dam removal project:

REMOVAL OF HEMINWAY POND DAM ON STEELE BROOK IN WATERTOWN UNDERWAY

Upstream at rock-filled breach in Heminway Pond Dam and shallow, dewatered impoundment on Steele Brook in Watertown (7-18-18)

After almost 15 years of discussion and planning with the Town of Watertown and other partners, removal of Heminway Pond Dam on Steele Brook in Watertown finally got underway in early July.  Though no longer functional, the dam and pond were originally constructed to supply water for a former thread/string mill.  The Town acquired the dam and pond from the Siemon Company, the most recent owner, in 2007 with an eye towards removing the dam, restoring the river and converting the dewatered impoundment area into a passive recreation area, including an extension of the Steele Brook Greenway.  With these goals in mind, the Town approached CT DEEP for help with removal of the dam.

As it turns out, CT DEEP, has also had a strong interest in seeing this dam removed.  It is anticipated that dam removal will improve the hydrology in this section of Steele Brook and eliminate a water quality impairment which manifests itself during hot weather and low flow conditions, as an orange-colored plume of water (due to iron precipitate) immediately downstream of the dam that impacts aquatic life.  Dam removal would also benefit fisheries by restoring stream connectivity and habitat.

Working towards these mutual goals, CT DEEP was able to provide federal CWA 319 nonpoint source grant funding to USDA NRCS to develop a watershed-based plan for Steele Brook to address nonpoint source impairments that includes a dam removal feasibility analysis for Heminway Pond Dam.  Based on the recommendations in this plan, CT DEEP subsequently provided additional 319 grant funds to the Town of Watertown to hire a consultant to develop a dam removal design package, and assist with permitting and preparation.

With the Town of Watertown as a strong and vested partner, CT DEEP is now helping this project over the finish line by providing a combination of 319 and SEP funds to accomplish the actual dam removal and restoration of Steele Brook.  Dayton Construction Company is performing the construction and Princeton Hydro is the consultant overseeing the project on behalf of the Town.  The Northwest Conservation District is also assisting with the project.  It is anticipated that the majority of the work will be completed by this Fall.  U.S. EPA, ACOE and CT DEEP have all played active roles with regard to permitting the project.

 

A view of the first notch during the Heminway Pond Dam removal on July 17, 2018.

Princeton Hydro has designed, permitted, and overseen the reconstruction, repair, and removal of dozens of small and large dams in the Northeast. Click here to read about a recent dam removal project the firm completed on the Moosup River. And, to learn more about our dam and barrier engineering services, visit: bit.ly/DamBarrier.

WINNER! #LakesAppreciation Month Contest Results

Princeton Hydro’s #LakesAppreciation Month contest is officially closed, and we’re excited to announce Holden Sparacino as the winner! Holden, a Graduate Research Assistant at University of Vermont, has won a one-year membership to the North American Lake Management Association (NALMS) and a $100 Amazon gift card.

The Lakes Appreciation Month contest encouraged people who enjoy lakes to participate in a “Secchi Dip-In,” which is an annual citizen science event created by NALMS in 1994 in order to involve lake-goers and associations across North America in monitoring water quality by using a Secchi disk to monitor the transparency or turbidity of their local waterway.

Thanks so much to everyone who participated in the contest and showed your appreciation for lakes!

Read more about the Secchi Dip-in Contest here:

CONTEST ALERT: Celebrate #LakesAppreciation Month and Win $100

 

Restoring and Revitalizing Freshwater Mussels

Freshwater mussels are among the oldest living and second most diverse organisms on Earth with over 1,000 recognized species. Here in the eastern part of the U.S., we have more species of freshwater mussels than anywhere in the world. Unfortunately, freshwater mussels are one of the most rapidly declining animal groups in North America. Out of the 300 species and subspecies found on the continent, 70 (23%) have been federally listed as “Threatened” or “Endangered” under the Endangered Species Act. And, in the last century, over 30 species have become permanently extinct. So, why are populations declining so fast?

Freshwater mussels are filter feeders and process large volumes of the water they live in to obtain food. This means of survival also makes them highly susceptible to industrial and agricultural water pollution.  Because they are constantly filtering water, the contaminants and pathogens that are present are absorbed into the mussel’s tissues. As such, mussels are good indicators of water quality and can greatly contribute to improving water quality by filtering algae, bacteria and organic matter from the water column.

Not only do freshwater mussels rely on water quality, they are dependent on fish and other aquatic organisms for reproductive success. In order for a freshwater mussel to complete the reproduction process, it must “infect” a host fish with its larvae. The method depends on the specie of mussel. Some species lure fish using highly modified and evolved appendages that mimic prey. When a fish goes into investigate the lures, the female mussel releases fertilized eggs that attach to the fish, becoming temporarily parasitic. Once the host fish is infected, it can transfer the mussel larvae upstream and into new areas of the river.

Both habitat loss from dam construction and the introduction of pesticides into the water supply has contributed to the decline of freshwater mussels. With approximately 300 mussel species in the U.S. alone, a critical component of restoring and revitalizing mussel populations is truly understanding their biology, which begins with the ability to properly differentiate each species and properly identify and catalog them. Princeton Hydro’s Senior Scientist Evan Kwityn, CLP and Aquatic Ecologist Jesse Smith recently completed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service‘s Fresh Water Mussel Identification Training at the National Conservation Training Center in West Virginia.

Through hands-on laboratory training, Evan and Jesse developed their freshwater mussel identification skills and their knowledge of freshwater mussel species biology. Course participants were tasked with mastering approximately 100 of the most common freshwater mussel species in the United States. They also learned about proper freshwater mussel collection labeling, the internal and external anatomy and meristics of a freshwater mussel, and distributional maps as an aid to freshwater mussel identification.

In a recently published press release, Tierra Curry, a senior scientist with the Center for Biological Diversity was quoted as saying, “The health of freshwater mussels directly reflects river health, so protecting the places where these mussels live will help all of us who rely on clean water. This is especially important now, when we see growing threats to clean water from climate change, agriculture and other sources.”

Princeton Hydro is committed to protecting water quality, restoring habitats, and managing natural resources. Read about some of our recent projects and contact us to discuss how we can help you.

To learn more about freshwater mussels, check out this video from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: