American Littoral Society and Princeton Hydro Receive “Project of the Year” Award

The American Littoral Society and Princeton Hydro accepted the “Project of the Year” Award at last night's The American Society of Civil Engineers Central New Jersey Branch Annual Dinner. The team received the award for their work on the Barnegat Bay Green Infrastructure Project. Photo from left to right: Tim Dillingham, American Littoral Society Executive Director; Helen Henderson American Littoral Society Ocean Planning Manager for the Mid-Atlantic region; Dr. Stephen J. Souza, Princeton Hydro Founder.

The American Littoral Society and Princeton Hydro accepted the “Project of the Year” Award at the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Annual Dinner. The team received the award for their work on the Barnegat Bay Green Infrastructure Project.

”This was a terrific project conducted for a terrific client – the American Littoral Society,” said Princeton Hydro Founder Dr. Stephen Souza. “It also would not have been possible without a very supportive and engaged stakeholder group.”

The Barnegat Bay Project focused on reducing the amount of pollution entering the Bay’s waterways by retrofitting outdated stormwater management systems and implementing green infrastructure on previously developed sites.

“The project showcases the combined skill-sets of Princeton Hydro,” said Dr. Souza. “This was a truly collaborative effort involving the company’s aquatic ecologists, wetland ecologists, water resource engineers and landscape architect. We all worked closely to develop and implement green infrastructure solutions that measurably decrease pollutant loading to Barnegat Bay and correct localized flooding problems.”

Learn more about the award-winning project here: https://goo.gl/uQ3DfV. Big congratulations to the entire Littoral Society team for winning this prestigious award! And, many thanks to ASCE Central Jersey Branch for the recognition.

Barnegat Bay Green Infrastructure Project Named “Project of the Year”

Princeton Hydro is thrilled to announce that American Littoral Society’s Barnegat Bay Green Infrastructure Project has been named “Project of the Year” by The American Society of Civil Engineers Central Jersey Branch.

The award-winning project was a collaboration between the Littoral Society, Princeton Hydro and key partners that involved implementing a variety of green infrastructure stormwater management projects in order to decrease the volume of runoff and associated pollutants flowing into and damaging Barnegat Bay.

The green infrastructure projects were designed to treat stormwater at its source while delivering environmental, social and economic benefits to the Bay. Completed projects include:

  • Conversion of standard, grassed detention basins into naturalized bio-retention basins, as exemplified by the Laurel Commons Carnation Circle Basin, which now serves as a paradigm for the cost-effective retrofitting of aged, traditional detention basins
  • At Toms River High School North, the installation of tree boxes,
  • At the Toms River Board of Education offices, the replacement of conventional paving with permeable pavement,
  • At multiple sites, the construction of rain gardens,
  • At Toms River High School North, the construction/installation of stormwater management Manufactured Treatment Devices (MTDs)
  • At the Toms River Community Medical Center (RWJ Barnabas Health), the construction of a bio-retention/infiltration basin

The entire Princeton Hydro team extends our warmest congratulations to Helen Henderson and all of the folks at American Littoral Society for winning this prestigious award! Princeton Hydro is proud to partner with this incredible organization and is grateful for the work they do to protect our beautiful coastline and save the bay!

The Awards Dinner and celebration takes place on Tuesday, October 17th at the Forsgate Country Club. The “Project of the Year” nomination was originally submitted by Princeton Hydro founder Dr. Stephen Souza on behalf of the Littoral Society.

For a more detailed summary and photos of the award-winning project, click here.

Environmental Education Opportunity

Upcoming Course Announcement:
Green Infrastructure Stormwater Management 1-Day Class

Members of the Princeton Hydro team are teaching a 1-day class on Green Infrastructure Stormwater Management Techniques at Montclair State University.

This innovative class, offered through the University’s Continuing Professional Education Services program, focuses on the proper selection, design, implementation and maintenance of green infrastructure techniques commonly used in urban and suburban settings. Multiple site examples will be provided helping participants walk away with a deeper understanding of how to apply what they learn in real-world scenarios.

The course will be held on Friday, October 6, 2017 from 8:00 AM to 4:00 PM. Advance registration is required. To sign up for and get more course details, click here.

Continuing Professional Education Services, LLC is the brainchild of Dr. Jorge H. Berkowitz and Philip I. Brilliant. From the inception of the Continuing Environmental Education for Professional (CEEP) program at the College of Science and Mathematics (CSAM) at Montclair State University, Dr. Berkowitz and Mr. Brilliant have been in the classroom and in the boardroom assuring the success of the program. In order to better serve the community of professionals, Dr. Berkowitz and Mr. Brilliant stepped forward with a solution that has saved the ability to offer continuing education credit-bearing courses at the second largest public higher education institution in New Jersey. Together they form CPES at Montclair State University!

Green Infrastructure Planting Projects

The Princeton Hydro team has been busy this summer installing over 1700 plants at three of the company’s green infrastructure stormwater management project sites.

First, team members finalized the planting of two rain gardens located at Clawson Park in East Amwell, NJ. They also installed plants in a renovated detention basin located at the West Amwell Municipal Building. Finally, together with members of the American Littoral Society team, the team finalized the planting of an expanded rain garden and a newly constructed bio-infiltration planter box at Toms River High School North, Toms River, NJ. All three projects are 319(h) funded projects.

Everyone dug-in, got their hands dirty and the payoff to all of this planting is less runoff and less pollutant loading to our streams and rivers!

Read more about Princeton Hydro’s green infrastructure projects here.

Celebrate “Lakes Appreciation Month” All Year

It’s officially the last day of #LakesAppreciation Month, but that certainly doesn’t mean our love for lakes is limited to one month out of the year. Here are a few ideas from North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) for how to appreciate your community lakes all year long:

  1. Appreciate them by enjoying them; plan outings with your family and friends
  2. Arrange a lake or watershed clean-up event; check out these tips for how to get started
  3. Help monitor your local waterbody; New Jersey residents can go here to learn about Community Water Monitoring volunteer opportunities
  4. Inspire others to #getoutside and enjoy; as you’re out and about appreciating your local lakes, remember to take photos and share on social media using these hashtags: #LakesAppreciation and #NALMS

Always remember to enjoy your local lakes responsibly. Here are a few tips to help you have fun in nature while having minimal environmental impact.

(Pictured above: Budd Lake in Mount Olive Township, Morris County, New Jersey)

Tracking and Managing Harmful Algae Blooms

A Presentation by Princeton Hydro Founder Dr. Stephen Souza
Available for Free Download Here

The presentation covers all things related to identifying, addressing and preventing Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs), including:

  • Understanding what defines HABs, Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins
  • Dispelling common misconceptions about HABs
  • Educating on the health implications associated with HABs, specifically related to drinking water and recreational water usage
  • Learning about PARETM – Princeton Hydro’s unique strategy for addressing HABs
    • (P)redict – Forecasting a bloom
    • (A)nalyze – Measuring and quantifying a bloom
    • (R)eact – Implementing measures to prevent and control a bloom
    • (E)ducate – Providing community outreach and public education

To learn more about Princeton Hydro’s Invasive Weed and Algae Management Services, visit our website or contact us!

 

The Plight of Aging Dams, and One Solution

As dams age, the danger to life and property around them increases. If they were to suddenly fail and flood downstream communities and infrastructure, there would be serious loss of property and life. More and more, dam removal has become the best option for property owners who no longer want or can no longer afford the rising cost of maintenance and repair work required to maintain such a complex structure.

The Courier-Post recently published this Commentary piece titled, “The Plight of Aging Dams, and One Solution”, which was written by Princeton Hydro’s Vice President and Principal Engineer Geoffrey M. Goll:

Many of our nation’s dams, while originally intended to provide benefits for mills, water supply and energy generation, are severely aged and unmaintained. Nearly 20,000 of the dams on the Army Corps of Engineers’ National Inventory of Dams – which doesn’t even include many dams that are not inventoried or known about – were built in the 1960s. With expected lifespans of 50 years, these dams have reached their limit. And by 2020, 70 percent of all dams will be over 50 years old. Like roads and bridges, dams also require upkeep, maintenance and eventually removal or rehabilitation.

As dams age, the danger to life and property around them increases. If they were to suddenly fail and flood downstream communities and infrastructure, there would be loss of property and life. The Association of State Dam Safety Officials, the professional organization for dam safety engineering professionals and regulators, estimates there would need to be a $21 billion investment to repair just 2,000 deficient, high-hazard dams. More and more, the removal of dams has become an option for owners who no longer want or no longer can afford the rising cost of maintenance and repair work required to maintain such a complex structure.

For dams like this, removal benefits local economies, and eliminates threats to people and property in local communities. There are also many byproduct benefits, including restoring fish migration routes, improving water quality, restoring floodplain functions and values, and increasing biodiversity.

On Sept. 8, we had the honor of meeting the Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell during a visit of our Hughesville Dam removal project on the Musconetcong River, located in northwestern New Jersey. This project exemplifies the successes that can be achieved through public-private partnerships, including local communities, state and federal agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and private commercial entities. This is the fifth dam removed on the Musconetcong River by a coalition of stakeholders, led by the Musconetcong Watershed Association. The Department of the Interior (specifically, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) provided funding to remove this very old, out-of-compliance dam.

The success of these partnerships is due to the unique strengths that each organization brings to the table. This project achieved the removal of a flood and safety hazard, and will restore additional river miles for migratory fish, improve water quality by removing the heat sink of the reservoir, and provide additional safe passage for recreation along the river.

It is easy to see why Secretary Jewell chose this site to visit, but the old and outdated dam at Hughesville is far from alone. Across the nation, we need to remove dams like this at a much larger scale – aging dams that no longer are of value to us, but increase the danger to those who live downstream. If we can build on this momentum and start to address the issue of dam safety compliance on a national scale, we can address these threats to American’s safety and strengthen local economies.

Lake Management and Restoration in the Hudson River Valley

Lake Management Planning in Action
at Sleepy Hollow Lake and Truesdale Lake

The Hudson River Valley encompasses 7,228 square miles along the eastern edge of New York State. It comprises 3 million residents, 133 communities and 553 significant freshwater lakes, ponds and reservoirs. Princeton Hydro has worked with municipalities and organizations in the Hudson River Valley for over 18 years actively restoring, protecting and managing waterbodies throughout the area.

Princeton Hydro is currently implementing customized Lake Management Plans at two waterbodies in the Hudson River Valley: Sleepy Hollow Lake, a 324-acre drinking water reservoir/recreational lake located in Green County, NY and Truesdale Lake, an 83-acre lake in Northern Westchester County, NY.

Sleepy Hollow Lake

Stretching over two and a half miles long and reaching depths of approximately 70 feet, Sleepy Hollow Lake is a NYSDEC Class “A” drinking water reservoir that provides potable water for the Sleepy Hollow community. The lake is also extensively used by residents for swimming, boating and water-skiing. And, it is recognized as an outstanding large-mouth bass and white crappie (current New York State record holder) fishery!

Princeton Hydro was hired by the Association of Property Owners (APO) at Sleepy Hollow Lake to develop a comprehensive lake management plan. The first step involved an in-depth analysis of the biological, chemical and physical attributes of the lake, with the goal being to generate a database that can be used to better understand the interactions defining the Sleepy Hollow Lake ecosystem.

The data collection and investigation phase includes:

  • Watershed Investigation: an in-depth assessment of the major and minor tributaries and road network in order to identify areas of stream bank and ditch erosion; sources of both sediment and nutrient loading to the lake
  • Bathymetric Survey: the accurate mapping of water depths and the quantification of the amount of accumulated, unconsolidated sediment present in the lake
  • Fisheries & Food Web Study: the collection of fish and plankton data for the purpose of creating a comprehensive fisheries management program focused on managing the lake’s outstanding fishery, further promoting the ecological balance of the lake, and enhancing lake water quality
  • Aquatic Plant Mapping: the development of detailed maps identifying the plant species present in the lake along with their relative abundance and distribution throughout the lake, but especially within the shallower coves
  • Hydrologic & Pollutant Budget: the computation of the lake’s hydrologic budget and pollutant loading budget. The hydrologic budget represents the water balance of the lake and is an estimate of all of the inputs and losses of water. The pollutant budget represents an estimate of the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus entering the lake from various sources. These data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of lake management options, enabling us to determine the best, most ecologically sound and most cost-effective approach to protect and improve the lake’s water quality now and into the future.

Princeton Hydro is now in the process of utilizing all of the data developed during the investigation phase of the project to create a comprehensive Lake Management Plan that will be used to guide the APO’s future lake restoration and protection initiatives. The Lake Management Plan and supporting data will also be used by Princeton Hydro on behalf of the APO to seek grant funding for various lake and watershed restoration projects.

Princeton Hydro is also overseeing the aquatic plant management program at Sleepy Hollow Lake, the focus of which is to control invasive plant species in a manner consistent with and complimentary of the lake’s overall ecological enhancement.

Truesdale Lake

At Truesdale Lake, Princeton Hydro is working with the Truesdale Lake Property Owners Association (TLPOA) to develop a comprehensive Lake Management Plan. The Plan provides a detailed project implementation roadmap for TLPOA, including recommendations for priority ranking of particular activities and restoration measures. A key element of the Plan are the short-term (1-year) and long-term (5-year) water quality and problematic algae and invasive aquatic plant control goals. Another highlight of the Plan is the review of Federal, State, County and local grants, programs and initiatives that may provide funding for identified lake and watershed projects.

During the Plan’s development, Princeton Hydro has provided the TLPOA with lake management consultation services such as community education initiatives, the coordination of NYSDEC permitting activities associated with the implementation of lake restoration measures, and the oversight and administration of an aquatic weed management program at the lake.

Earlier this year, Truesdale Lake experienced excessive aquatic weed growth, which significantly reduced the water quality, recreational use and aesthetics of the lake. Princeton Hydro utilized its Truxor, an eco-friendly, amphibious machine, to cut and remove the nuisance weed growth from the lake. This program helped reduce the negative impacts to the lake and lake users caused by the dense weed growth. Future use of the Truxor to remove invasive weeds is already part of the long-term Lake Management Plan for TLPOA. The Truxor will be used in concert with other measures to control invasive weed growth and restore a more balanced native aquatic plant community.

For more information about Princeton Hydro’s work in the Hudson River Valley or to discuss your project goals, please contact us.

Client Spotlight: Roaring Brook Lake, Putnam Valley, NY

A Comprehensive Lake Management Plan Designed by Princeton Hydro

roaring-brook-lake Since 1998, Princeton Hydro has been working with the Town of Putnam Valley, often referred to as the Town of Lakes, to restore and maintain its waterbodies. The most recent area of focus is Roaring Brook Lake, a 115-acre man-made lake surrounded by a wooded landscape community that includes 260+ homes. The lake provides a variety of recreational opportunities for boaters, anglers, swimmers and outdoor lovers and is the center point of the Roaring Brook Lake District.

The Town of Putnam Valley and the Roaring Brook Lake District hired Princeton Hydro to conduct a thorough analysis of the lake’s ecological health, identify problems affecting the quality of the lake, and develop a detailed plan to improve and protect the lake. Specifically, Princeton Hydro will implement a detailed assessment of the lake that involves water quality monitoring, bathymetric mapping (measurement of lake depth and sediment thickness), aquatic plant surveys, and quantification of the lake’s hydrologic and pollutant budgets. These data will be utilized collectively to produce a comprehensive management plan for Roaring Brook Lake and its watershed.

Water Quality Monitoring

Water quality data are used to interpret the existing chemistry of the lake, identify water quality trends, pinpoint problems and assess nutrient levels.

At Roaring Brook Lake, Princeton Hydro will specifically collect in-situ data from the surface to the bottom of the water column. The resulting temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity data will be used in combination with laboratory generated data to assess the lake’s thermal stability and investigate the potential for internal phosphorus loading. In addition, samples will be collected to identify phytoplankton and zooplankton in the lake; some of the plankton is considered a nuisance while others are considered valuable relative to the lake’s food web.

Bathymetric Assessment

The bathymetric assessment will generate accurate lake water depth, and provide sediment thickness and distribution data for the entire body of water. These data are then used to evaluate the need for dredging, asses how and where aquatic plants become colonized and other management options that can affect long-term decisions regarding the restoration and protection of Roaring Brook Lake. The bathymetric data are also used in the various trophic models that help predict the lake’s response to incoming nutrients.

Specifically, Princeton Hydro will utilize hydrographic surveying methods to conduct the bathymetric assessment of Roaring Brook Lake. A specialized dual frequency fathometer will be used to measure water depth and the thickness of the unconsolidated sediment present throughout the lake. The fathometer is directly tied into GPS, so data are consistently collected at the exact position of the survey transects. The GPS data and accompanying water depth data will be placed into a GIS format for the generation of morphometric data and bathymetric maps of the lake.

Aquatic Plant Mapping

Aquatic plants hold sediments in place, reduce erosion and provide habitat for fish and other important wildlife and insects. Although native aquatic plants are imperative to a lake’s health, an overabundance of these plants and the presence of invasive plants can have very negative impacts.

Princeton Hydro will be conducting a complete mapping of the aquatic plant community within Roaring Brook Lake to identify the plant species present in the lake, their relative abundance and location, and provide a basis for future evaluation of changes in the plant community. This data will greatly inform lake management activities moving forward. Additionally, with this data, Princeton Hydro will be able to assess the effectiveness of the resident grass carp – currently stocked in the lake – in keeping the submerged vegetation under control.

 

Hydrologic and Pollutant Budget

The hydrologic budget represents the water balance of a lake, accounting on an annual scale for all of the inputs and losses of water. The hydrologic data is used extensively in conducting trophic state analyses and is important in determining the feasibility and utility of many in-lake restoration techniques. At Roaring Brook Lake, Princeton Hydro will investigate and quantify four key components of the hydrologic budget, including direct precipitation, overland runoff (stormwater, snowmelt, etc.), tributary inflow and groundwater seepage.

Once the hydrologic budget is complete and land-use has been categorized and quantified, a pollutant budget can then be developed. The development of a detailed pollutant budget is a critical component of any lake management plan. For the purpose of the Roaring Brook Lake study, the term pollutant refers to the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus as well as total suspended solids. The pollutant budget represents a quantification of the input of pollutants from various sources to the lake. Because the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus present in the lake stimulates eutrophication and results in water quality impacts, proper quantification of the nutrient load is critical for the development of a site-specific and cost effective management plan.

Data Analysis

The data analysis for Roaring Brook Lake will focus on identifying an acceptable in-lake condition (i.e. specific level of algal biomass in the lake) and correlate this to the lake’s annual phosphorus load through a robust water quality model.

The data analysis will involve the review of both historical and current data and will be used to identify correlations and relationships between existing pollutant concentrations/loads and unacceptable water quality conditions (i.e. algal blooms, high rates of turbidity, nuisance densities of aquatic plants, etc.). Water quality thresholds and goals will be established for assessing the long-term progress of the lake management plan.

Lake Management Plan

roaring-brook-lake-1Properly managing your lakes and ponds starts with developing a customized management plan and involves a holistic approach to ensure continued success.

A good management plan is informed by substantial data collection and analysis (as described above); includes any necessary permit requirements and a proposed timetable for implementation; provides recommendations for priority ranking of particular activities and restoration measures; and discusses predicted benefits of the plan’s implementation and how each activity is linked to the established water quality goals. A well-crafted and thorough lake management plan will also include a review of the various Federal, State, County and local grants, programs and initiatives that may provide funding for the identified in-lake and watershed projects.

• • •

Princeton Hydro’s work with Roaring Brook Lake marks the 16th project they’ve conducted for the Town of Putnam Valley. Princeton Hydro’s proven success in watershed management stems from the cumulative training and experience of its staff, and its ability to develop watershed management solutions that are both practical and effective, which has led to the firm’s very high success rate in improving water quality.

If you’re interested in developing a customized, comprehensive management plan for your lake or pond, please contact us!

 

 

 

 

Four Ways Climate Change Could Affect Your Lake

The Local Effects of Climate Change Observed Through our Community Lakes

Climate change is an enormous concept that can be hard to wrap your head around. It comes in the form of melting ice caps, stronger storms and more extreme seasonal temperatures. If you’re an avid angler, photographer, swimmer, boater or nature enthusiast, it’s likely that because of climate change you’ll bear witness to astonishing shifts in nature throughout the greater portion of your lifetime. This is especially true with respect to lakes.

2015-07-07-10-01-20Lakes are living laboratories through which we can observe the local effects of climate change in our own communities. Lake ecosystems are defined by a combination of various abiotic and biotic factors. Changes in hydrology, water chemistry, biology or physical properties of a lake can have cascading consequences that may rapidly alter the overall properties of a lake. Most of the time the results are negative and the impacts severe. Recognizing and monitoring the changes that are taking place locally brings the problems of climate change closer to home, which can help raise awareness and inspire environmentally-minded action.

Princeton Hydro has put together a list of four inter-related, climate change induced environmental impacts that can affect lakes and lake communities:

1. Higher temperatures = shifts in flora and fauna populations

The survival of many lake organisms is dependent on the existence of set temperature ranges and ample oxygen levels. The amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in a lake is a result of oxygen diffusion from the atmosphere and its production by algae and aquatic plants via photosynthesis. An inverse relationship exists between water temperature and DO concentrations. Due to the physical properties of water, warmer water holds less DO than cooler water.

This is not good news for many flora and fauna, such as fish that can only survive and reproduce in waters of specific temperatures and DO levels. Lower oxygen levels can reduce their ability to feed, spawn and survive. Populations of cold water fishes, such as brown trout and salmon, will be jeopardized by climate change (Kernan, 2015).

358-001-carp-from-churchvilleAlso consider the effects of changing DO levels on fishes that can tolerate these challenging conditions. They will thrive where others struggle, taking advantage of their superior fitness by expanding their area of colonization, increasing population size, and/or becoming a more dominant species in the ecosystem. A big fish in a little pond, you might say. Carp is a common example of a thermo-tolerant fish that can quickly colonize and dominate a lake’s fishery, in the process causing tremendous ecological impact (Kernan, 2010).

2. Less water availability = increased salinity

Just as fish and other aquatic organisms require specific ranges of temperature and dissolved oxygen to exist, they must also live in waters of specific salinity. Droughts are occurring worldwide in greater frequency and intensity. The lack of rain reduces inflow and higher temperatures promote increased evaporation. Diminishing inflow and dropping lake levels are affecting some lakes by concentrating dissolved minerals and increasing their salinity.

Studies of zooplankton, crustaceans and benthic insects have provided evidence of the consequences of elevated salinity levels on organismal health, reproduction and mortality (Hall and Burns, 2002; Herbst, 2013; Schallenberg et al., 2003). While salinity is not directly related to the fitness or survival rate of all aquatic organisms, an increase in salinity does tend to be stressful for many.

3. Nutrient concentrations = increased frequency of harmful algal blooms

Phosphorus is a major nutrient in determining lake health. Too little phosphorus can restrict biological growth, whereas an excess can promote unbounded proliferation of algae and aquatic plants.

before_strawbridgelake2If lake or pond water becomes anoxic at the sediment-water interface (meaning the water has very low or completely zero DO), phosphorus will be released from the sediment. Also some invasive plant species can actually “pump” phosphorus from the sediments and release this excess into the water column (termed luxurious uptake). This internally released and recycled sedimentary phosphorus can greatly influence lake productivity and increase the frequency, magnitude and duration of algae blooms. Rising water temperatures, declining DO and the proliferation of invasive plants are all outcomes of climate change and can lead to increases in a lake’s phosphorus concentrations and the subsequent growth and development of algae and aquatic plants.

Rising water temperatures significantly facilitate and support the development of cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae) blooms. These blooms are also fueled by increasing internal and external phosphorus loading. At very high densities, cyanobacteria may attain harmful algae bloom (HAB) proportions. Elevated concentrations of cyanotoxins may then be produced, and these compounds seriously impact the health of humans, pets and livestock.

rain-garden-imagePhosphorus loading in our local waterways also comes from nonpoint sources, especially stormwater runoff. Climate change is recognized to increase the frequency and magnitude of storm events. Larger storms intensify the mobilization and transport of pollutants from the watershed’s surrounding lakes, thus leading to an increase in nonpoint source loading. Additionally, larger storms cause erosion and instability of streams, again adding to the influx of more phosphorus to our lakes. Shifts in our regular behaviors with regards to fertilizer usage, gardening practices and community clean-ups, as well as the implementation of green-infrastructure stormwater management measures can help decrease storm-related phosphorus loading and lessen the occurrence of HABs.

4. Cumulative effects = invasive species

A lake ecosystem stressed by agents such as disturbance or eutrophication can be even more susceptible to invasive species colonization, a concept coined “invasibility” (Kernan, 2015).

For example, imagine that cold water fish species A has experienced a 50% population decrease as a result of warming water temperatures over ten years. Consequently, the fish’s main prey, species B, has also undergone rapid changes in its population structure. Inversely, it has boomed without its major predator to keep it in check. Following this pattern, the next species level down – species B’s prey, species C – has decreased in population due to intense predation by species B, and so on. Although the ecosystem can potentially achieve equilibrium, it remains in a very unstable and ecologically stressful state for a prolonged period of time. This leads to major changes in the biotic assemblage of the lake and trickle-down changes that affect its recreational use, water quality and aesthetics.

• • •

Although your favorite lake may not experience all or some of these challenges, it is crucial to be aware of the many ways that climate change impacts the Earth. We can’t foresee exactly how much will change, but we can prepare ourselves to adapt to and aid our planet. How to start? Get directly involved in the management of your lake and pond. Decrease nutrient loading and conserve water. Act locally, but think globally. Get out and spread enthusiasm for appreciating and protecting lake ecosystems. Also, check out these tips for improving your lake’s water quality.


References

  1. Hall, Catherine J., and Carolyn W. Burns. “Mortality and Growth Responses of Daphnia Carinata to Increases in Temperature and Salinity.” Freshwater Biology 47.3 (2002): 451-58. Wiley. Web. 17 Oct. 2016.
  1. Herbst, David B. “Defining Salinity Limits on the Survival and Growth of Benthic Insects for the Conservation Management of Saline Walker Lake, Nevada, USA.” Journal of Insect Conservation 17.5 (2013): 877-83. 23 Apr. 2013. Web. 17 Oct. 2016.
  1. Kernan, M. “Climate Change and the Impact of Invasive Species on Aquatic Ecosystems.” Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management (2015): 321-33. Taylor & Francis Online. Web. 17 Oct. 2016.
  1. Kernan, M. R., R. W. Battarbee, and Brian Moss. “Interaction of Climate Change and Eutrophication.” Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Ecosystems. 1st ed. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. 119-51. ResearchGate. Web. 17 Oct. 2016.
  1. Schallenberg, Marc, Catherine J. Hall, and Carolyn W. Burns. “Consequences of Climate-induced Salinity Increases on Zooplankton Abundance and Diversity in Coastal Lakes”Marine Ecology Progress Series 251 (2003): 181-89. Inter-Research Science Center. Inter-Research. Web. 17