Dr. Fred Lubnow of Princeton Hydro Featured in Magazine Article on Chautauqua Lake

The U.S. is home to thousands of lakes both natural and manmade. Lakes are incredibly important features in the landscape that provide numerous beneficial services, including domestic water supply, hydro-electric power, agricultural water supply, recreation, and tourism. They also provide essential habitat for fish, wildlife and aquatic organisms.

Lakes are complex and dynamic systems, each situated in a unique landscape context. Maintaining the ecological health of a lake is no easy feat. A lot goes on behind the scenes to maintain water quality and a balanced lake ecosystem. Successful, long-term lake management requires a proactive approach that addresses the causes of its water quality problems rather than simply reacting to weed and algae growth and other symptoms of eutrophication.

Chautauqua Magazine recently published an article about the science behind the management of Chautauqua Lake, which features our Director of Aquatic Programs Dr. Fred Lubnow. We’ve included an excerpt below. Click here to view the full article and photos:

Dr. Fred Lubnow is a scientist and director of aquatic programs at Princeton Hydro, a consulting organization based in Exton, Pennsylvania, that is often called on to support lake and watershed regions that want to develop a long-term plan for lake conservation.

He says that while his firm focuses on the development of data and intelligence to inform decision making in regard to freshwater ecosystems, his work is really about coalition building.

“As a scientist and a consultant, you learn over time that you are building a coalition stakeholders and determining what we can agree on to help everyone in the community,” Lubnow said.

Ten years ago, Princeton Hydro was hired to do some stream and inlet monitoring for various stakeholders at Chautauqua Lake. More recently, they’ve been contracted to conduct third-party monitoring of the impacts of the Spring 2019 herbicide applications in the south basin of Chautauqua Lake…

Continue reading!

 

Princeton Hydro is the industry leader in lake restoration and watershed management. We have conducted diagnostic studies and have developed management and restoration plans for over 300 lakes and watersheds throughout the country. This has included work for public and private recreational lakes, major water supply reservoir, and watershed management initiatives conducted as part of USEPA and/or state funded programs. For more information about our lake management services, go here: http://bit.ly/pondlake. 

Managing Urban Stormwater Runoff and Revitalizing Natural Habitat at Harveys Lake

Measuring 630+ acres, Harveys Lake, located in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, just northeast of Wilkes-Barre, is the largest natural lake (by volume) within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and is one of the most heavily used lakes in the area. It is classified as a high quality – cold water fishery habitat (HQ-CWF) and is designated for protection under the classification.

Since 2002, The Borough of Harveys Lake and the Harveys Lake Environmental Advisory Council  has worked with Princeton Hydro on a variety of lake management efforts focused around maintaining high water quality conditions, strengthening stream banks and shorelines, and managing stormwater runoff.

Successful, sustainable lake management requires identifying and correcting the cause of eutrophication as opposed to simply reacting to the symptoms of eutrophication (algae and weed growth). As such, we collect and analyze data to identify the problem sources and use these scientific findings to develop a customized management plan that includes a combination of biological, mechanical, and source control solutions. Here are some examples of the lake management strategies we’ve utilized for Harveys Lake:

 

Floating Wetland Islands

Floating Wetland Islands (FWIs) are an effective alternative to large, watershed-based natural wetlands. Often described as self-sustaining, FWIs provide numerous ecological benefits. They assimilate and remove excess nutrients, like nitrate and phosphorous, that could fuel algae growth; provide habitat for fish and other aquatic organisms; help mitigate wave and wind erosion impacts; and provide an aesthetic element. FWIs are also highly adaptable and can be sized, configured, and planted to fit the needs of nearly any lake, pond, or reservoir.

Five floating wetland islands were installed in Harveys Lake to assimilate and reduce nutrients already in the lake. The islands were placed in areas with high concentrations of nutrients, placed 50 feet from the shoreline and tethered in place with steel cables and anchored. A 250-square-foot FWI is estimated to remove up to 10 pounds of nutrients per year, which is significant when it comes to algae.

Princeton Hydro worked with the Harveys Lake Environmental Advisory Council and the Borough of Harveys Lake to obtain funding for the FWIs through the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP).

 

Streambank & Shoreline Stabilization

Harveys Creek

The shoreline habitat of Harveys Lake is minimal and unusual in that a paved road encompasses the lake along the shore with most of the homes and cottages located across the roadway, opposite the lake. In addition to the lake being located in a highly populated area, the limited shoreline area adds to the challenges created by urban stormwater runoff.

Runoff from urban lands and erosion of streambanks and shorelines delivers nutrients and sediment to Harveys Lake. High nutrient levels in the lake contribute to algal blooms and other water quality issues. In order to address these challenges, the project team implemented a number of small-scale streambank and inlet stabilization projects with big impacts.

The work included the stabilization of the streambank downstream for Harveys Lake dam and along Harveys Creek, the design and installation of a riparian buffer immediately along the lake’s shoreline, and selective dredging to remove sediment build up in critical areas throughout the watershed.

 

Invasive Species Management

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), an aggressively growing aquatic plant, took root in the lake in 2014 and quickly infected 250 acres of the lake in a matter of three years. If left untreated, hydrilla will grow to the water’s surface and create a thick green mat, which prevents sunlight from reaching native plants, fish and other organisms below. The lack of sunlight chokes out all aquatic life.

In order to prevent hydrilla from spreading any further, Princeton Hydro and SePRO conducted an emergency treatment of the impacted area utilizing the systemic herbicide Sonar® (Fluridone), a clay-based herbicide. SonarOne, manufactured by SePRO, blocks hydrilla’s ability to produce chloroplasts, which in turn halts the photosynthetic process. The low-concentration herbicide does not harm fish, wildlife or people using the lake. Surveys conducted after the treatment showed it was working – the hydrilla had turned white and was dying off. Additional Sonar treatments followed and efforts to eradicate hydrilla in the lake continue.

Dr. Fred Lubnow, our Director of Aquatic Programs, estimates complete eradication of the aquatic plant could take around five years. Everyone can do their part in preventing the spread of this and other invasive species. Boaters and lake users must be vigilant and remove all vegetation from the bottom of watercrafts and trailers.

 

Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs)

In 2009, Princeton Hydro developed a stormwater implementation plan (SIP) for Harveys Lake. The goal of the stormwater/watershed-based efforts was to reduce the lake’s existing annual total phosphorus load to be in full compliance with the established Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). This TMDL is related to watershed-based pollutant loads from total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS), which can contribute to algal blooms.

A number of structural urban runoff projects were implemented throughout the watershed. This includes the design and construction of two natural stream channel projects restoring 500 linear feet of tributaries and reducing the sediment and nutrient loads entering the lake. A series of 38 urban runoff BMPs, including nutrient separating devices and roadside infiltration, were installed in areas immediately adjacent to the lake to further reduce the loads of nutrients and other pollutants reaching the lake.

The photos below show a stormwater project that was completed in the Hemlock Gardens Section of the Watershed. Hemlock Gardens is a 28-acre section of land located in the southeastern portion of the watershed. It contains approximately 26 homes, has very steep slopes, unpaved dirt roads, and previously had no stormwater infrastructure in place.

Two structural stormwater BMPs were installed:

  • A nutrient separating baffle box, which utilizes a three-chamber basin with screens to collect leaf litter, grass clippings and trash
  • A water polishing unit that provides a platform for secondary runoff treatment

In 1994, Harveys Lake was identified as “impaired” by PADEP due to large algal blooms. In 2014, Harveys Lake was removed from the list of impaired waters. Project partners attribute the recovery of this lake to the stream restoration, urban runoff BMP implementation, and the use of in-lake nutrient reduction strategies.

The Harveys Lake Watershed Protection Plan Implementation Project proved that despite the lake being located in an urbanized watershed, it is possible to implement cost-effective green infrastructure and stormwater retrofit solutions capable of significantly decreasing pollutant loading to the lake.

To learn more about our lake and pond management services or schedule a consultation, visit: http://bit.ly/pondlake.

Protecting Greenwood Lake’s Water Quality Through Stormwater Management

The summer is upon us and Lakes Appreciation Month is right around the corner, what better time to pay a visit to and learn more about the lakes in your area.

Princeton Hydro conducts work on lakes throughout the Northeast to preserve, protect and improve water quality and ecological health, ensuring that your community lakes can be enjoyed now and into the future. Today, we’re putting the spotlight on Greenwood Lake:

Greenwood Lake, a 7-mile-long interstate lake that straddles the border of New York and New Jersey, is a popular recreation spot for residents and tourists of both states. Considered to be one of the top bass fishing lakes in New Jersey, Greenwood Lake is abundant with largemouth and smallmouth bass, yellow perch, chain pickerel and catfish. The lake is also extensively used by residents for swimming and boating.

For over 35 years, Princeton Hydro’s scientists have worked with New Jersey, local governing municipalities, and the various environmental organizations involved with the protection of Greenwood Lake and its watershed. In the early 2000s, we developed a comprehensive Restoration Plan and a proactive monitoring program that we have used over the years to properly manage the lake and its watershed. The plan was developed for the Greenwood Lake Commission and the Township of West Milford with funding provided through the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection’s Nonpoint Source 319(h) Program. The Restoration Plan focuses heavily on the implementation of various types of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) to help reduce the influx of sediment and nutrients into the lake. We track the positive effects and benefits achieved through these stormwater projects by conducting both storm-event based and in-lake water quality monitoring.

The goal of the stormwater-based efforts is to ensure the lake’s total phosphorus (TP) load is systematically reduced in accordance with the lake’s established Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). The TMDL is a regulatory term in the U.S. Clean Water Act, that identifies the maximum amount of a pollutant (in this case phosphorus) that a waterbody can receive while still meeting water quality standards. Princeton Hydro was instrumental in developing the TMDL for Greenwood Lake. Phosphorus entering the lake from runoff is the primary driver of the lake’s eutrophication. The direct results of eutrophication are increases in the density of aquatic plants and nuisance algae. All this added productivity leads to reduced clarity, reductions in dissolved oxygen concentrations, and a number of other ecological impacts that compromise the quality, aesthetics, and use of the lake.

Last year, Princeton Hydro and the Greenwood Lake Commission, with input from the West Milford Environmental Commission, proposed an updated Watershed Implementation Plan (WIP) for the lake. Approved and funded by the NJ Highlands Council, the updated WIP includes a variety of components that build upon the original Restoration Plan and incorporate newly advanced stormwater management and Nonpoint Source Pollution (NPS) reduction technologies.

Belcher's Creek at Edgecumb and Glencross

The WIP includes in‐lake and stream monitoring; the assessment of the existing stormwater structures installed through grant‐based, watershed activities; and the identification of watershed-based projects that can be completed to support the Lake’s compliance with TMDL TP levels with a specific focus on the stormwater runoff produced by Belcher’s Creek, a major tributary to Greenwood Lake.

The WIP also includes the following nine minimum elements considered necessary by both NJDEP and USEPA for funding eligibility:

  1. Identify causes and sources of pollution
  2. Estimate pollutant loading into the watershed and the expected load reductions
  3. Describe management measures that will achieve load reductions and targeted critical areas
  4. Estimate amounts of technical and financial assistance and the relevant authorities needed to implement the plan
  5. Develop an information/education component
  6. Develop a project schedule
  7. Describe the interim, measurable milestones
  8. Identify indicators to measure progress
  9. Develop a monitoring component

While many of these elements have been indirectly addressed to varying degrees in the original Restoration Plan, in order to maximize Greenwood Lake’s opportunities to obtain State and Federal funding for the design and implementation of watershed control measures, the WIP now explicitly correlates the nine elements to eight specific deliverables, which are as follows:

  1. Conduct a detailed in‐lake and watershed‐based water quality monitoring program and compare the data to that collected in 2004 and 2005 to document changes or shifts in water quality.
  2. Meet with the Township of West Milford, Passaic County and other stakeholders to
    inventory recently completed BMPs and other watershed management measures.
  3. Conduct a field‐based evaluation of the stormwater project completed since the original 319‐grant funded Restoration Plan.
  4. Conduct site assessments to identify other potential stormwater/watershed BMP projects.
  5. Conduct a field assessment of the Belchers Creek Corridor to identify potential Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction Projects.
  6. Assemble the WIP with all the 9 elements fully satisfied.
  7. Schedule and implement stakeholder and public meetings to evaluate project status.
  8. Submit of final version of WIP to the NJDEP and present the findings and recommendations to the public.

This project was initiated in September 2018 and is projected for completion by September 2019. The Greenwood Lake Commission, serves as the inter‐State steward of the Greenwood Lake watershed, and is working closely with Princeton Hydro and the watershed stakeholders (Township of West Milford, Passaic County and others), to ensure the WIP is a holistic document.

Stay tuned for more Greenwood Lake updates as the WIP progresses. For more information about Princeton Hydro’s lake management projects and capabilities, or to discuss your project needs and goals, please contact us.

Some of the photos utilized in this blog are from The Village of Greenwood Lake.

Deal Lake Commission Wins Award For “Lake Management Success”

NALMS President Dr. Frank Browne with Princeton Hydro Co-Founder Dr. Stephen Souza accepting the “Lake Management Success Stories” award on behalf of the Deal Lake Commission.

The Deal Lake Commission’s success in the management and restoration of Deal Lake garners a prestigious award from the North American Lake Management Society

 

The North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) awarded the Deal Lake Commission (DLC) with its “2018 Lake Management Success Stories” award. The award, which was presented at the NALMS 38th International Symposium, is given annually to recognize and honor an individual or group that has made significant lake/reservoir management accomplishments.

The DLC has overseen the management and restoration of Deal Lake and its watershed since 1974. Consisting of appointees from the seven municipalities abutting the lake, the DLC’s mission is to provide leadership, guidance and resources to preserve and restore Deal Lake and its tributaries as a healthy and stable ecosystem. A true challenge in an urban environment.

“It has been both a pleasure and an honor to work with the Deal Lake Commission for the past 35 years,” said Dr. Stephen Souza, Princeton Hydro Co-Founder. “They have shown great resolve to tackle some serious problems affecting the lake and its watershed, serving as a great example for other organizations involved in the restoration of urban lakes.”

Deal Lake is New Jersey’s largest coastal lake, encompassing 162 acres. The lake is surrounded by a 4,400-acre highly urbanized watershed, with the majority of development dating back to the 1960s-1980s. As a result, stormwater management, particularly with respect to water quality and volume management can be especially challenging. The DLC has embraced the numerous challenges, and has worked diligently over the years to correct these issues.

Restored shoreline at the Asbury Park Boat Launch in Deal LakeAt the forefront, the DLC has been managing the primary cause of the lake’s eutrophication: stormwater runoff from the surrounding watershed. In 2014, with funding provided through the NJDEP’s 319(h) program, the DLC implemented a number of demonstration projects, specifically the construction of three bioretention basins, the installation of a large manufactured treatment device, the vegetative stabilization of over 500 feet of heavily eroded sections of the shoreline, and the construction of a rain garden at the Deal Lake boat launch.

Collectively these projects were shown to eliminate localized flooding, decrease floatable loading, and reduce nutrient, sediment and pathogen inputs to the lake. These and other projects implemented by the DLC over the years show that despite Deal Lake being located in a highly urbanized watershed, it is possible to implement cost-effective green infrastructure and stormwater retrofit solutions.

Deal Lake recently won another very competitive 319 (h) program for $735,000 for MTDs, tree boxes, and Green infrastructure improvements to Deal Lake, Sunset Lake and Wesley Lake.

The NALMS award nomination application, which was submitted by Dr. Souza, listed a number of additional achievements of the DLC, including:

  • Educating the community, including school children, to increase awareness and appreciation for the natural environment of the lake;
  • Sponsoring and conducting public engaged spring and fall cleanups, which annually result in the removal of 1,000s of pounds of refuse and debris from the lake;
  • Helping homeowners and public groups recognize and mindfully solve problems related to water quality, siltation, and lake restoration;
  • Serving as the liaison between lakeside communities, County agencies, and the NJDEP;
  • Microbial source tracking investigations with Monmouth University and pathogen source identification work with Clean Ocean Action to decrease E. coli loading;
  • Carp removal, invasive species management, and goose control initiatives;
  • Working with State legislators to implement stricter stormwater controls to reduce pollutant loading, increase storm resiliency, and improve recreational fishing;
  • Participating in the NALMS Secchi Dip In; and
  • Proactively suggesting and supporting community-based, practical ideas to improve the overall environmental quality of the lake and its enjoyment by boaters, anglers, hikers, residents and visitors.

For more information on the Deal Lake Commission, visit DealLake.org.

The successful, long-term improvement of a lake or pond requires a proactive management approach that addresses the beyond simply reacting to weed and algae growth and other symptoms of eutrophication. Our staff can design and implement holistic, ecologically-sound solutions for the most difficult weed and algae challenges. Visit our website to learn more about Princeton Hydro’s lake management services: http://bit.ly/pondlake.

WINNER! #LakesAppreciation Month Contest Results

Princeton Hydro’s #LakesAppreciation Month contest is officially closed, and we’re excited to announce Holden Sparacino as the winner! Holden, a Graduate Research Assistant at University of Vermont, has won a one-year membership to the North American Lake Management Association (NALMS) and a $100 Amazon gift card.

The Lakes Appreciation Month contest encouraged people who enjoy lakes to participate in a “Secchi Dip-In,” which is an annual citizen science event created by NALMS in 1994 in order to involve lake-goers and associations across North America in monitoring water quality by using a Secchi disk to monitor the transparency or turbidity of their local waterway.

Thanks so much to everyone who participated in the contest and showed your appreciation for lakes!

Read more about the Secchi Dip-in Contest here:

CONTEST ALERT: Celebrate #LakesAppreciation Month and Win $100

 

Restoring and Revitalizing Freshwater Mussels

Freshwater mussels are among the oldest living and second most diverse organisms on Earth with over 1,000 recognized species. Here in the eastern part of the U.S., we have more species of freshwater mussels than anywhere in the world. Unfortunately, freshwater mussels are one of the most rapidly declining animal groups in North America. Out of the 300 species and subspecies found on the continent, 70 (23%) have been federally listed as “Threatened” or “Endangered” under the Endangered Species Act. And, in the last century, over 30 species have become permanently extinct. So, why are populations declining so fast?

Freshwater mussels are filter feeders and process large volumes of the water they live in to obtain food. This means of survival also makes them highly susceptible to industrial and agricultural water pollution.  Because they are constantly filtering water, the contaminants and pathogens that are present are absorbed into the mussel’s tissues. As such, mussels are good indicators of water quality and can greatly contribute to improving water quality by filtering algae, bacteria and organic matter from the water column.

Not only do freshwater mussels rely on water quality, they are dependent on fish and other aquatic organisms for reproductive success. In order for a freshwater mussel to complete the reproduction process, it must “infect” a host fish with its larvae. The method depends on the specie of mussel. Some species lure fish using highly modified and evolved appendages that mimic prey. When a fish goes into investigate the lures, the female mussel releases fertilized eggs that attach to the fish, becoming temporarily parasitic. Once the host fish is infected, it can transfer the mussel larvae upstream and into new areas of the river.

Both habitat loss from dam construction and the introduction of pesticides into the water supply has contributed to the decline of freshwater mussels. With approximately 300 mussel species in the U.S. alone, a critical component of restoring and revitalizing mussel populations is truly understanding their biology, which begins with the ability to properly differentiate each species and properly identify and catalog them. Princeton Hydro’s Senior Scientist Evan Kwityn, CLP and Aquatic Ecologist Jesse Smith recently completed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service‘s Fresh Water Mussel Identification Training at the National Conservation Training Center in West Virginia.

Through hands-on laboratory training, Evan and Jesse developed their freshwater mussel identification skills and their knowledge of freshwater mussel species biology. Course participants were tasked with mastering approximately 100 of the most common freshwater mussel species in the United States. They also learned about proper freshwater mussel collection labeling, the internal and external anatomy and meristics of a freshwater mussel, and distributional maps as an aid to freshwater mussel identification.

In a recently published press release, Tierra Curry, a senior scientist with the Center for Biological Diversity was quoted as saying, “The health of freshwater mussels directly reflects river health, so protecting the places where these mussels live will help all of us who rely on clean water. This is especially important now, when we see growing threats to clean water from climate change, agriculture and other sources.”

Princeton Hydro is committed to protecting water quality, restoring habitats, and managing natural resources. Read about some of our recent projects and contact us to discuss how we can help you.

To learn more about freshwater mussels, check out this video from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service:

Five Ways to Participate in Lakes Appreciation Month

#LakesAppreciation Month is a great time of year to enjoy your community lakes and help protect them. 

Lakes Appreciation Month was started by North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) to help bring attention to the countless benefits that lakes provide, to raise awareness of the many challenges facing our waterways, and encourage people to get involved in protecting these precious resources.  Unfortunately, the natural beauties that provide clean drinking water and wildlife habitat are at risk. Chemical pollutants, hydrocarbons, stormwater runoff, invasive aquatic species, and climate change are just a few of the the serious threats facing freshwater habitats.  So what can you do to to help?

We’ve put together five tips to help you celebrate Lakes Appreciation Month and get involved in protecting your favorite lakes:

1. Join the “Secchi Dip-In” contest: The “Secchi Dip-In” is an annual citizen science event where lake-goers and associations across North America use a simple Secchi disk to monitor the transparency or turbidity of their local waterway.  This year, Princeton Hydro is offering “Secchi Dip-In” participants a chance to win a $100 Amazon gift card and a one-year membership to NALMSEntry details here.

2. Organize a cleanup event: You can easily organize a lake clean-up in your community! Volunteer cleanups are a great way to get neighbors together around a good cause, raise awareness about the importance of protecting water quality, and make a positive impact on your community waterways. Organizing a volunteer event is a lot easier than you may think. Check out these tips for how to get started.

3. Get involved with your local lake: You can help support your favorite lake by joining a lake or watershed association. As an organized, collective group, lake associations work toward identifying and implementing strategies to protect water quality and ecological integrity. Lake associations monitor the condition of the lake, develop lake management plans, provide education about how to protect the lake, work with the government entities to improve fish habitat, and much more.

4. Monitor and report algae blooms: With the BloomWatch App, you can help the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency understand where and when potential harmful algae blooms (HABs) occur. HABs have the potential to produce toxins that can have serious negative impacts on the health of humans, pets, and our ecosystems. Learn more and download the app.

5. Get outside and enjoy: Whether you enjoy swimming, relaxing on the shoreline, canoeing, or fishing, there are countless ways you can get outside and enjoy your community lakes. Encourage others to appreciate their local waterbodies by taking photos of your lake adventures and sharing them on social media using the hashtag: #LakesAppreciation.

 

Go here to learn more about NALMS and get more ideas on how to celebrate your local lakes. If you’re interested in learning more about Princeton Hydro’s broad range of award-winning lake and pond management services, please contact us. 

How’s the Fishing? Tips for Managing Your Lake’s Fishery

The fishery of a lake is an intrinsic, incredibly dynamic element of a lake system, and managing a lake’s fishery can be a very complex endeavor. There is actually a lot more to it than simply stocking game fish. Although there is no “one way” in fisheries management, there are key guidelines that can be followed to maximize the recreational potential of your lake’s fishery and increase the success of your fishery management and stocking efforts. Over the past two decades, Princeton Hydro has been working with lake, pond, and reservoir managers to help them to align water quality, fishery, and ecological goals.

Princeton Hydro’s Founder, Dr. Steve Souza, recently gave a presentation on fisheries management at the Spring Meeting of the New Jersey Coalition of Lake Associations (NJCOLA). We’ve compiled a few essential elements from his presentation and have made the complete presentation available for free download.

Let’s dive in!

Benefits of a Healthy Fishery

Recreational fishing is an outdoor activity that can be enjoyed by people of all ages. When children are introduced to fishing, it helps cultivate a connection to the environment, thereby promoting outdoor activity and environmental stewardship among today’s youth.

Anglers have always served as important advocates for the conservation of natural resources. The sale of fishing licenses financially supports wildlife habitat conservation and enhancement as well as the protection and improvement of water quality. This increases the ecological services and functions of lakes and adds to their societal and recreational benefits.

A healthy fishery can have significant positive impacts on water quality. In a balanced, healthy fishery the ratio of forage and game fish affects the entire food web, helping to maintain the proper balance of zooplankton and phytoplankton. The “top down” ecological control associated with a balanced fishery minimizes algae blooms, sustains good water clarity and stable water quality. However, when the fishery is out of balance, the water quality and overall ecological health of the lake often suffers.

Before You Stock, Know Your Lake and Start with a Baseline

Before you do any fish stocking, it’s best to conduct a fishery survey. A fishery survey provides the vital data needed to design a stocking and management plan.

A balanced lake fishery is dependent on good water quality, ample habitat, and the correct ratio of predator and prey fish species. A properly designed and implemented fishery survey generates the data needed to quantify the overall composition of the existing fish community (predator vs. prey), the make-up of the forage (food) base, and the density and robustness of the lake’s top piscivores (prized game fish).

The resulting data helps identify if your fishery is balanced, which fish to stock, and how many of each species to introduce. It will also provide the benchmarks needed to solidify your management goals and, later on, help determine if the goals are being met. To stay on track, we recommend that a comprehensive fishery survey be conducted once every three years. Be sure to use the correct types and combination of “active” and “passive” sampling gear and thoroughly sample both the open water and nearshore areas of the lake.

The survey should include the collection and analysis of water quality data, and the mapping of available habitat. Water column water quality “profiles” provide vital information pertaining to the lake’s thermal and dissolved oxygen properties; key factors for a healthy, vibrant fishery. Here are some basic water quality guidelines:

  • Dissolved oxygen: ≥ 4 mg/L with 6-7 mg/L being ideal
  • For warm water fishery: Uniform temperatures at all depth (minimal or no thermal stratification)
  • For cold water fishery: Deep water temperature of 15 C, and dissolved oxygen ≥ 5 mg/L
  • pH: 6 to 8
  • Clarity: ≥ 3 feet (1 meter) Secchi disc transparency
  • Total Phosphorus: < 0.05 mg/L
  • Chlorophyll a: < 20 µg/L

Water quality sampling should also include an assessment of the lake’s zooplankton and phytoplankton communities, the base of your lake’s food web.

Floating Wetland Island

During the survey, take the time to quantify and map the distribution of existing forage, spawning, and refuge habitat. Lack of adequate habitat can significantly impede the fishery’s sustainability. This begins with the bathymetric mapping of the lake, which is basically an underwater survey of the bottom of the lake. This mapping shows where and how much shallow water versus open water habitat exists.  It can also help identify the location and distribution of important habitat types, such as shoals, rock piles, sandy open areas and natural structures (tree falls and snags). The data also helps determine where to create and introduce habitat, which can be in the form of brush piles, floating wetland islands, and other types of features that increase the spawning, recruitment, and foraging success of the fishery.

Stocking Your Lake

Once the fishery survey is completed, habitat is mapped and water quality analyzed, stocking can begin. In order to determine the specific stocking levels and rates that are right for your waterbody, here are some factors to consider:

  • Ensure your stocking efforts create or augment the correct ratio of predator (game) and prey (forage) fish.

  • Stock cautiously, focusing on a simple composition of predator and prey species. For most warm water lakes, largemouth bass should serve as the top predator and fathead minnow should be the primary prey.

  • Avoid problem fish, such as golden shiner, alewife and brown/black bullhead. Although these fish are often promoted as suitable forage species, they can be easily get overstocked and cause major disruptions of the fishery and to the degradation of water quality.

Go here for a more in-depth look at how to properly stock your fishery.

In Summary

A healthy sustainable fishery isn’t only a function of the types and amounts of fish stocked in a lake; it is directly a function of water quality, the availability and quality of spawning, foraging and refuge habitat, the ratio of forage to predator fish, and the overall composition and balance of the food web.

Begin with a fishery survey; the resulting data enables a correctly planned and implemented stocking program. Conduct routine surveys to assess the status of the fishery and the success of the program. Also, annual water quality testing provides the information needed to make wise pro-active fishery management decisions. It will also provide insights into the lake’s environmental conditions to ensure they are supportive of a healthy, productive and sustainable recreational fishery.

Learn More

If you’re interested in learning more about Princeton Hydro’s fisheries management or lake management services, please contact us.

Click here to download a full copy of Dr. Souza’s presentation, titled “How’s the Fishing? Maximizing the Recreational Potential of Your Lake’s Fishery,” which he recently presented at the NJCOLA Spring Meeting. The presentation provides an in-depth set of guidelines for fishery management, covering topics like data collection methods, habitat creation and enhancement, maximizing habitat quality, and details on various stocking species to consider for your lake.

NJCOLA unites lake communities throughout New Jersey through education and by formulating legislation favorable to the protection and enhancement of the State’s lake resources. NJCOLA meetings, held on a regular basis in the spring and fall, educate members on various topics and issues affecting lake communities ranging from legal to environmental.

The Spring NJCOLA meeting was well attended with over 60 participants representing lakes throughout New Jersey, including a number of lakes that are managed by Princeton Hydro – Lake Mohawk, Lake Hopatcong, White Meadow Lake, Lake Swanannona, Kehmah Lake, Culver Lake and Swartswood Lake.

To learn more about Princeton Hydro’s Pond and Lake services, including water quality sampling, bathymetric surveying, floating wetland islands, and fisheries, visit: http://bit.ly/pondlake 

 

CONTEST ALERT: Celebrate #LakesAppreciation Month and Win $100

How healthy is your lake? July is Lakes Appreciation Month and we’re celebrating with a contest! To raise awareness about water quality, we’re encouraging people who enjoy lakes to participate in a “Secchi Dip-In” for a chance to win a $100 Amazon gift card and a one-year membership to the North American Lake Management Association (NALMS).

What is the “Secchi Dip-In”?

The “Secchi Dip-In” is an annual citizen science event created by NALMS in 1994. It was developed in order to involve lake-goers and associations across North America in using a simple Secchi disk to monitor the transparency or turbidity of their local waterway.

This data collected is evaluated on a regional scale by NALMS and helps lake managers further understand the water quality of lakes in their region. Since 1994, more than 10,000 trained volunteers have generated 42,000 transparency records, giving a glimpse of lake water transparency at sites across North America and the world, according to NALMS.

How do I collect a Secchi sample?
  1. What is a Secchi disk and what data is collected with it?
    The typical Secchi disk used in lakes is an 8-inch disk with alternating black and white quadrants. It’s lowered into the water until the observer can no longer see it. The depth of disappearance, called the Secchi depth, is a measure of the transparency of the water. The disk is named in honor of Father Pietro Angelo Secchi, astronomer and scientific advisor to the Pope, who tested this new instrument in the Mediterranean Sea on April 20, 1865.
  2. Where can I get a Secchi disk?
    Secchi disks are a low-cost investment and a great tool to have for measuring water quality. You can purchase a Secchi disk on Amazon or other online marketplaces for $20-$30. Alternatively, you can always ask a friend or your local lake manager to borrow one. Some people even make their own!
  3. How do I take a measurement? How many times do I do it?
    A measurement is taken by lowering the disk on the sunny side of the boat. To eliminate sun glare, an underwater viewer (viewscope) can also be used if so desired. Allow sufficient time (preferably 2 minutes) when looking at the disk near its vanishing point for the eyes to adapt completely to the prevailing luminance level. Record the depth at which the disk disappears. Slowly raise the disk and record the depth of reappearance. The “Secchi depth” is the average depth of disappearance and reappearance. For further accuracy, several people can each record several Secchi depths. Then, all of the depths can be averaged into one single reading. Please note: the water depth should be at least 50% greater than the Secchi depth so that the disk is viewed against the water background, not bottom-reflected light.
  4. What’s the best time of day to collect a sample?  
    The best time of day to collect a sample is when the sun is at its highest point in the sky, generally around midday. Most volunteers generally collect data between the hours of 10:00 AM and 2:00 PM.
  5. What do the results mean?
    The Secchi disk measures transparency, which serves as an indicator of changing water quality. Transparency decreases as the amount of particles in the water— such as algae and sediment—increases.

Check out this “How to Secchi Dip” video created by Princeton Hydro Senior Limnologist Michael Hartshorne:

How to Enter the Contest:

One lucky winner will be randomly selected on August 1, 2018.  The selected winner will receive a $100 gift card to Amazon and a one-year membership to NALMS. We’ll reach out to you via social media to collect your email and address for prize distribution. If the winner does not respond within 5 working days with the appropriate information, we will select another winner at random. Good luck, everyone!

Conditions:

By submitting an entry (Photograph) via Facebook or Twitter to Princeton Hydro’s 2018 #LakesAppreciation Month Contest, you agree to the following: You represent and warrant that:

  • You are the sole and exclusive author and owner of the Photograph submitted and all rights therein; and
  • You have the full and exclusive right, power, and authority to submit the Photograph; and
  • You irrevocably grant Princeton Hydro a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free, perpetual license to use the Photograph in any manner related to the Contest, including all associated use, reproduction, distribution, sublicense, derivative works, and commercial and non-commercial exploitation rights in any and all media now known or hereafter invented, including, but not limited to public relations purposes, posting on social media accounts, and/or for company marketing materials; and
  • No rights in the Photograph have been previously granted to any person, firm, corporation or other entity, or otherwise encumbered such that the prior grant would limit or interfere with the rights granted to Princeton Hydro herein; and
  • No part of your Photograph defames or invades the privacy or publicity rights of any person, living or decreased, or otherwise infringes upon any third party’s copyright, trademark or other personal or property rights.

NYSFOLA Awards Dr. Stephen Souza with Highest Honor at 2018 Annual Conference

The New York State Federation of Lake Associations (NYSFOLA) Board of Directors awarded Dr. Stephen Souza, Founder, Princeton Hydro with its ‘Lake Tear of the Clouds’ Award. This award, named after the highest lake in the state, is NYSFOLA’s highest honor. It is only given to a person who has shown the highest dedication to New York’s lakes and watersheds, assisted NYSFOLA in its mission, and produced exceptional performance in his or her field of endeavor.

In bestowing this award to Dr. Souza, NYSFOLA recognizes his accomplishments and efforts in the management and restoration of lakes throughout the State of New York and his support of the initiatives promoted by NYSFOLA. The award was presented at the NYSFOLA’s 35th annual conference, which was held on May 4th and 5th at the Fort William Henry Hotel in Lake George.

During his acceptance speech, Dr. Souza said, “I am truly humbled and appreciative to have even been considered worthy of this award.  In accepting the ‘Lake Tear of Clouds’ Award, I want to extend my deepest thanks to NYSFOLA, the NYSFOLA Board of Directors, Nancy Mueller (NYSFOLA Manager), and all of you here tonight.  It is people like yourselves, who advocate for clean lakes, that have made my career so rewarding. I would be remiss if I also did not take the time to thank my wife Maria and my family for their support over the years and of course the dedicated lake scientists that I have the pleasure to work with day in and day out at Princeton Hydro. That of course includes Dr. Fred Lubnow, who I have had the pleasure of working side-by-side with since 1992, Chris Mikolajczyk and Mike Hartshorne, both of whom are here tonight, and the rest of my Princeton Hydro colleagues.”

Dr. Souza first attended the NYSFOLA conference in 1985, and has been working to assess, restore and protect watersheds throughout the state of New York for over 35 years. Some of the notable projects managed by Dr. Souza over that time include projects conducted at Honeoye Lake, Sodus Bay, Greenwood Lake and Sleepy Hollow Lake. He is currently working with New York State Department of Environmental Conservation on a major statewide harmful algae bloom (HAB) management effort.

“We thank you for your longtime support of NYSFOLA and our member lake association, Steve,” said Nancy J. Mueller, Manager. “And, we congratulate Princeton Hydro on its 20th anniversary.”

ABOUT NYSFOLA

The New York State Federation of Lake Associations, Inc. was founded in 1983 by a coalition of lake associations concerned about water quality, invasive species, and other issues facing New York’s lakes. Today, more than 200 lake associations across the state are members of the only statewide voice for lakes and lake associations. NYSFOLA also has corporate members and individual members who support our efforts.