We Have a Winner! #LakesAppreciation Instagram Photo Contest

To celebrate North American Lake Management Society‘s Lakes Appreciation Month and encourage folks to get outside and appreciate their favorite lakes, we hosted an Instagram photo contest where participants had the chance to win $100.

The contest is now closed, we’ve selected a name at random, and…

We are very excited to announce the 2019 #LakesAppreciation contest winner!

A very big congratulations to Barbara Ann (@babsinski) who submitted the beautiful photo shown above of New Jersey’s Wesley Lake.

Thanks to everyone who got outside to show appreciation for their community lakes and participated in our contest. We received a variety of incredible photos from lake appreciators throughout the country. Here’s a sampling of the submissions we received:

In case you missed it, check out all of the contest details here:

Photo Contest! Show Your #LakesAppreciation on Instagram to Win $100

We hope you’ll join us next year in celebrating Lakes Appreciation Month! And, we encourage you to get outside and enjoy your community lakes all year long!

Photo Contest! Show Your #LakesAppreciation on Instagram to Win $100

Did you know that lakes contain about 90% of all surface water on Earth, not counting the oceans? That’s a whole lot to appreciate! And, luckily Lakes Appreciation Month is right around the corner!

July 1 marks the beginning of Lakes Appreciation Month. To encourage active participation in this month-long celebration, we’re holding a #LakesAppreciation Instagram photo contest where you can show us how you appreciate lakes! The winner will receive a $100 Amazon gift card.

CONTEST DETAILS & GUIDELINES: 

We want to see how YOU appreciate lakes! Send us photos of yourself actively participating in lake appreciation. Make sure to read the contest guidelines and conditions listed below. Need some inspiration? Scroll down for a list of suggestions to get your creativity flowing.

HOW TO ENTER THE CONTEST:
  • During the month of July, get out on your local lakes and participate in an appreciation activity.
  • Snap a photo of yourself doing a lake appreciation activity and post it to Instagram. You must use this hashtag #LakesAppreciation in your caption and tag Princeton Hydro (@princeton_hydro) in the photo.
    • In order for us to view your entry and your photo to be eligible for the contest, your account or post must be public.
    • Entries must be submitted as regular posts on your profile in order to qualify, but we also encourage you to add the picture to your story!
PHOTO GUIDELINES:

Each Post Must Include the Following:

  • A lake photo
  • You actively participating in an appreciation activity
  • A caption explaining what you did and why you appreciate your lakes!
  • #LakesAppreciation
  • @princeton_hydro tagged

One lucky winner will be randomly selected on August 1, 2019. The selected winner will receive a $100 gift card to Amazon. We’ll reach out to you via social media to collect your email and address for prize distribution. If the winner does not respond within five working days with the appropriate information, we will select another winner at random. Good luck, everyone!

GETTING STARTED:

Not sure how to get started? We’ve got you covered with a few ideas! Here are 10 ways you can show your lake appreciation:

  1. Relax on the lake: Whether you enjoy swimming, relaxing on the shoreline, sailing, canoeing, or kayaking, there are countless ways you can get outside and enjoy your community lakes.
  2. Go fishing: There’s nothing quite like relaxing on the shoreline with a fishing pole in your hand. Whether you’re there to catch and release or want to take your catches home, fishing is a great way to unwind. Go get your license (if you’re above the age of 16), check your local fishing rules and regulations, and cast a line in your local lake!
  3. new jersey ospreyBreak out the binoculars:  Lakes are great spots to go birding! Download the eBird app to track your bird sightings and see what fellow birders have reported in the area. Also, keep your eyes peeled for ospreys; New Jersey has an osprey conservation project with a map to track all the recent sighting reports.
  4. #TrashTag – Clean it up: One super quick and easy thing to do is clean up your local lake. You can get a small group of friends together or just go out on your own – no effort is too small! You’ll be able to immediately see the benefits of your actions when the trash-lined shore is clear. In addition to the Lakes Appreciation Photo contest tags, make sure you use #trashtag, a global viral cleanup challenge that shows people’s before and after pictures of their cleaning efforts so that you can be a part of that growing trend!
  5. Get involved with your local lake: You can help support your favorite lake by joining a lake or watershed association. As an organized, collective group, lake associations work toward identifying and implementing strategies to protect water quality and ecological integrity. Lake associations monitor the condition of the lake, develop lake management plans, provide education about how to protect the lake, work with the government entities to improve fish habitat, and much more.
  6. Remove invasive species: One of the most harmful elements of lake ecosystems are invasive species. So, by properly removing and discarding them, you can really help a lake to achieve its most desired state. A list of possible invasive species can be found here. For inspiration, check out this blog, written by our Senior Limnologist, Mike Hartshorne.
  7. Call on your inner-artist and draw a lake scene: All you need is a notepad, a pencil, and some spare time to let your imagination and creative skills take over. Does your lake have ducks? Are there people swimming? Is the sun rising or setting? Snap a picture of you with your art!
  8. Monitor and report algae blooms: With the BloomWatch App, you can help the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency understand where and when potential harmful algae blooms (HABs) occur. HABs have the potential to produce toxins that can have serious negative impacts on the health of humans, pets, and our ecosystems. Learn more and download the app.
  9. Join the “Secchi Dip-In” contest: The “Secchi Dip-In” is an annual citizen science  event created by NALMS during which lake-goers and associations across North America use a simple Secchi disk to monitor the transparency or turbidity of their local waterway. Visit their website to find out how to join their contest!
  10. Create your own experience: Write a sonnet about one of your lake experiences. Snap a picture of you sitting out by the water’s edge. Share your favorite lake memory on social media. Collect shells. Play a round of SpikeBall or CanJam in the surrounding area. With permission from the lake owner, plant some native species around the water. The possibilities are endless for lake appreciation!

Still having trouble thinking of an activity to do? Visit the NALMS’s website!

fishing on lake

ADDITIONAL CONTEST CONDITIONS:

By submitting an entry (Photograph) via Instagram to Princeton Hydro’s 2019 #LakesAppreciation Month Contest, you agree to the following: You represent and warrant that:

  • You are the sole and exclusive author and owner of the Photograph submitted and all rights therein; and
  • You have the full and exclusive right, power, and authority to submit the Photograph; and
  • You irrevocably grant Princeton Hydro a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free, perpetual license to use the Photograph in any manner related to the Contest, including all associated use, reproduction, distribution, sublicense, derivative works, and commercial and non-commercial exploitation rights in any and all media now known or hereafter invented, including, but not limited to public relations purposes, posting on social media accounts, and/or for company marketing materials; and
  • No rights in the Photograph have been previously granted to any person, firm, corporation or other entity, or otherwise encumbered such that the prior grant would limit or interfere with the rights granted to Princeton Hydro herein; and
  • No part of your Photograph defames or invades the privacy or publicity rights of any person, living or decreased, or otherwise infringes upon any third party’s copyright, trademark or other personal or property rights.

Check out the details and winner of last year’s Lakes Appreciation Month contest:

WINNER! #LakesAppreciation Month Contest Results

:

 

 

WINNER! #LakesAppreciation Month Contest Results

Princeton Hydro’s #LakesAppreciation Month contest is officially closed, and we’re excited to announce Holden Sparacino as the winner! Holden, a Graduate Research Assistant at University of Vermont, has won a one-year membership to the North American Lake Management Association (NALMS) and a $100 Amazon gift card.

The Lakes Appreciation Month contest encouraged people who enjoy lakes to participate in a “Secchi Dip-In,” which is an annual citizen science event created by NALMS in 1994 in order to involve lake-goers and associations across North America in monitoring water quality by using a Secchi disk to monitor the transparency or turbidity of their local waterway.

Thanks so much to everyone who participated in the contest and showed your appreciation for lakes!

Read more about the Secchi Dip-in Contest here:

CONTEST ALERT: Celebrate #LakesAppreciation Month and Win $100

 

Restoring and Revitalizing Freshwater Mussels

Freshwater mussels are among the oldest living and second most diverse organisms on Earth with over 1,000 recognized species. Here in the eastern part of the U.S., we have more species of freshwater mussels than anywhere in the world. Unfortunately, freshwater mussels are one of the most rapidly declining animal groups in North America. Out of the 300 species and subspecies found on the continent, 70 (23%) have been federally listed as “Threatened” or “Endangered” under the Endangered Species Act. And, in the last century, over 30 species have become permanently extinct. So, why are populations declining so fast?

Freshwater mussels are filter feeders and process large volumes of the water they live in to obtain food. This means of survival also makes them highly susceptible to industrial and agricultural water pollution.  Because they are constantly filtering water, the contaminants and pathogens that are present are absorbed into the mussel’s tissues. As such, mussels are good indicators of water quality and can greatly contribute to improving water quality by filtering algae, bacteria and organic matter from the water column.

Not only do freshwater mussels rely on water quality, they are dependent on fish and other aquatic organisms for reproductive success. In order for a freshwater mussel to complete the reproduction process, it must “infect” a host fish with its larvae. The method depends on the specie of mussel. Some species lure fish using highly modified and evolved appendages that mimic prey. When a fish goes into investigate the lures, the female mussel releases fertilized eggs that attach to the fish, becoming temporarily parasitic. Once the host fish is infected, it can transfer the mussel larvae upstream and into new areas of the river.

Both habitat loss from dam construction and the introduction of pesticides into the water supply has contributed to the decline of freshwater mussels. With approximately 300 mussel species in the U.S. alone, a critical component of restoring and revitalizing mussel populations is truly understanding their biology, which begins with the ability to properly differentiate each species and properly identify and catalog them. Princeton Hydro’s Senior Scientist Evan Kwityn, CLP and Aquatic Ecologist Jesse Smith recently completed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service‘s Fresh Water Mussel Identification Training at the National Conservation Training Center in West Virginia.

Through hands-on laboratory training, Evan and Jesse developed their freshwater mussel identification skills and their knowledge of freshwater mussel species biology. Course participants were tasked with mastering approximately 100 of the most common freshwater mussel species in the United States. They also learned about proper freshwater mussel collection labeling, the internal and external anatomy and meristics of a freshwater mussel, and distributional maps as an aid to freshwater mussel identification.

In a recently published press release, Tierra Curry, a senior scientist with the Center for Biological Diversity was quoted as saying, “The health of freshwater mussels directly reflects river health, so protecting the places where these mussels live will help all of us who rely on clean water. This is especially important now, when we see growing threats to clean water from climate change, agriculture and other sources.”

Princeton Hydro is committed to protecting water quality, restoring habitats, and managing natural resources. Read about some of our recent projects and contact us to discuss how we can help you.

To learn more about freshwater mussels, check out this video from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service:

CONTEST ALERT: Celebrate #LakesAppreciation Month and Win $100

How healthy is your lake? July is Lakes Appreciation Month and we’re celebrating with a contest! To raise awareness about water quality, we’re encouraging people who enjoy lakes to participate in a “Secchi Dip-In” for a chance to win a $100 Amazon gift card and a one-year membership to the North American Lake Management Association (NALMS).

What is the “Secchi Dip-In”?

The “Secchi Dip-In” is an annual citizen science event created by NALMS in 1994. It was developed in order to involve lake-goers and associations across North America in using a simple Secchi disk to monitor the transparency or turbidity of their local waterway.

This data collected is evaluated on a regional scale by NALMS and helps lake managers further understand the water quality of lakes in their region. Since 1994, more than 10,000 trained volunteers have generated 42,000 transparency records, giving a glimpse of lake water transparency at sites across North America and the world, according to NALMS.

How do I collect a Secchi sample?
  1. What is a Secchi disk and what data is collected with it?
    The typical Secchi disk used in lakes is an 8-inch disk with alternating black and white quadrants. It’s lowered into the water until the observer can no longer see it. The depth of disappearance, called the Secchi depth, is a measure of the transparency of the water. The disk is named in honor of Father Pietro Angelo Secchi, astronomer and scientific advisor to the Pope, who tested this new instrument in the Mediterranean Sea on April 20, 1865.
  2. Where can I get a Secchi disk?
    Secchi disks are a low-cost investment and a great tool to have for measuring water quality. You can purchase a Secchi disk on Amazon or other online marketplaces for $20-$30. Alternatively, you can always ask a friend or your local lake manager to borrow one. Some people even make their own!
  3. How do I take a measurement? How many times do I do it?
    A measurement is taken by lowering the disk on the sunny side of the boat. To eliminate sun glare, an underwater viewer (viewscope) can also be used if so desired. Allow sufficient time (preferably 2 minutes) when looking at the disk near its vanishing point for the eyes to adapt completely to the prevailing luminance level. Record the depth at which the disk disappears. Slowly raise the disk and record the depth of reappearance. The “Secchi depth” is the average depth of disappearance and reappearance. For further accuracy, several people can each record several Secchi depths. Then, all of the depths can be averaged into one single reading. Please note: the water depth should be at least 50% greater than the Secchi depth so that the disk is viewed against the water background, not bottom-reflected light.
  4. What’s the best time of day to collect a sample?  
    The best time of day to collect a sample is when the sun is at its highest point in the sky, generally around midday. Most volunteers generally collect data between the hours of 10:00 AM and 2:00 PM.
  5. What do the results mean?
    The Secchi disk measures transparency, which serves as an indicator of changing water quality. Transparency decreases as the amount of particles in the water— such as algae and sediment—increases.

Check out this “How to Secchi Dip” video created by Princeton Hydro Senior Limnologist Michael Hartshorne:

How to Enter the Contest:

One lucky winner will be randomly selected on August 1, 2018.  The selected winner will receive a $100 gift card to Amazon and a one-year membership to NALMS. We’ll reach out to you via social media to collect your email and address for prize distribution. If the winner does not respond within 5 working days with the appropriate information, we will select another winner at random. Good luck, everyone!

Conditions:

By submitting an entry (Photograph) via Facebook or Twitter to Princeton Hydro’s 2018 #LakesAppreciation Month Contest, you agree to the following: You represent and warrant that:

  • You are the sole and exclusive author and owner of the Photograph submitted and all rights therein; and
  • You have the full and exclusive right, power, and authority to submit the Photograph; and
  • You irrevocably grant Princeton Hydro a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free, perpetual license to use the Photograph in any manner related to the Contest, including all associated use, reproduction, distribution, sublicense, derivative works, and commercial and non-commercial exploitation rights in any and all media now known or hereafter invented, including, but not limited to public relations purposes, posting on social media accounts, and/or for company marketing materials; and
  • No rights in the Photograph have been previously granted to any person, firm, corporation or other entity, or otherwise encumbered such that the prior grant would limit or interfere with the rights granted to Princeton Hydro herein; and
  • No part of your Photograph defames or invades the privacy or publicity rights of any person, living or decreased, or otherwise infringes upon any third party’s copyright, trademark or other personal or property rights.

Celebrate “Lakes Appreciation Month” All Year

It’s officially the last day of #LakesAppreciation Month, but that certainly doesn’t mean our love for lakes is limited to one month out of the year. Here are a few ideas from North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) for how to appreciate your community lakes all year long:

  1. Appreciate them by enjoying them; plan outings with your family and friends
  2. Arrange a lake or watershed clean-up event; check out these tips for how to get started
  3. Help monitor your local waterbody; New Jersey residents can go here to learn about Community Water Monitoring volunteer opportunities
  4. Inspire others to #getoutside and enjoy; as you’re out and about appreciating your local lakes, remember to take photos and share on social media using these hashtags: #LakesAppreciation and #NALMS

Always remember to enjoy your local lakes responsibly. Here are a few tips to help you have fun in nature while having minimal environmental impact.

(Pictured above: Budd Lake in Mount Olive Township, Morris County, New Jersey)

Princeton Hydro Photo Contest

To celebrate Earth Week 2017, Princeton Hydro founder Steve Souza launched an internal company photo contest for which he asked everyone to submit their best photos of nature.

A panel of judges reviewed the photos through a blind judging process, narrowed it down to the top five, and ultimately chose a winner. Without further ado, we’d like to congratulate Michael Rehman for scoring the 1st place win! His “Barred Owl” photo won him a $100 gift certificate and lots of bragging rights.

So many great photos were submitted – we just had to share them! The photo album below includes Michael’s winning pic, the runners up, and a selection of photos submitted by each of the contest participants. Thanks to everyone who had a hand in the photo contest! Keep getting out there and enjoying nature!

Winning Photo "Barred Owl" by Michael Rehman

Winning Photo
“Barred Owl” by Michael Rehman

Read about Princeton Hydro’s 2016 Earth Day Photo Contest here.

Pesticide-Free Lake Management Solutions

Blue Water Solutions for Green Water Problems

Managing your lakes and ponds without the use of pesticides

 

Proper lake and pond restoration is contingent with having a well prepared management plan. If you don’t start there, you’re just guessing as to which solutions will solve your problem. Successful, sustainable lake and pond management requires identifying and correcting the cause of eutrophication as opposed to simply reacting to the symptoms (algae and weed growth) of eutrophication. As such, Princeton Hydro collects and analyzes data to identify the problem causers and uses these scientific findings to develop a customized management plan for your specific lake or pond. A successful management plan should include a combination of biological, mechanical and source control solutions.  Here are some examples:


Biological Control:

Floating Wetland Islands (FWIs) are a great example of an effective biological control solution. They have the potential to provide multiple ecological benefits. Highly adaptable, FWIs can be sized, configured and planted to fit the needs of nearly any lake, pond or reservoir.

BROOKS LAKE FWI

Often described as self-sustaining, Floating Wetland Islands:

  • Help assimilate and remove excess nutrients that could fuel algae growth
  • Provide habitat for fish and other aquatic organisms
  • Help mitigate wave and wind erosion impacts
  • Provide an aesthetic element
  • Can be part of a holistic lake/pond management strategy

Read an article on Floating Wetland Islands written by our Aquatics Director Fred Lubnow.

Mechanical Control:

Another way to combat algae and invasive weed growth is via mechanical removal. One of the mechanical controls Princeton Hydro employs is the TruxorDM5000, an eco-friendly, multi-purpose amphibious machine that provides an effective, non-pesticide approach to controlling invasive weeds and problematic algae growth.

The TruxorDM5000: TRUXOR

  • Is capable of operating in shallow ponds and lakes where the access and/or operation of conventional harvesting or hydroraking equipment is limited
  • Is highly portable and maneuverable, yet very powerful
  • Can cut and harvest weeds and collect mat algae in near-shore areas with water depths less than three feet
  • Includes various attachments that allow the machine to easily collect and remove a variety of debris
  • Can be outfitted for sediment removal/dredging

Check out the Truxor in action here! 

Source Control:

Because phosphorus is typically the nutrient that fuels algae and weed growth, excessive phosphorus loading leads to problematic algal blooms and can stimulate excessive weed growth. One of the most sustainable means of controlling nuisance weed and algae proliferation is to control phosphorus inputs or reduce the availability of phosphorus for biological uptake and assimilation. The measures that decrease the amount or availability of phosphorus in a lake or pond are defined as “source control” strategies.

Deerfield Lake, PA – PhosLockTM treatment Through data collection and analysis, we can properly identify the primary sources of phosphorus loading to a lake and pond, whether those sources are internal or external.  Our team of lake managers, aquatic ecologists and water resource engineers use those data to develop a management plan that quantifies, prioritizes and correctly addresses problem sources of phosphorus.

PhosLockTM and alum are often utilized as environmentally-safe and controlled means to limit phosphorus availably. Although PhosLockTM works similar to alum, it does not have some of the inherent secondary environmental limitations associated with alum. PhosLockTM is a patented product that has a high affinity to bind to and permanently remove from the water column both soluble reactive and particulate forms of phosphorus. This makes it a very effective pond and lake management tool.

Read more about controlling harmful algae blooms.

These are just a few of the examples of non-pesticide lake and pond management strategies that Princeton Hydro regularly utilizes. Properly managing your lakes and ponds starts with developing the right plan and involves a holistic approach to ensure continued success. For more ideas or for help putting together a customized, comprehensive management plan, please contact us! 

Tracking and Addressing Harmful Algae Blooms

Princeton Hydro’s PARE™ Program:
A Tool for Tracking and Addressing Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs)

Understanding HABs

Over the past decade we have learned more about the serious health implications associated with intense cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae) blooms. Although cyanobacteria are not truly algae, these blooms have come to be labeled Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs). Cyanobacteria have a number of evolved advantages relative to “good phytoplankton.” For example, many cyanobacteria are capable of fixing and assimilating atmospheric nitrogen, thus providing them with an unlimited source of a key growth-limiting nutrient. Most are also biologically adept at up-taking and utilizing organic phosphorus, another growth-limiting nutrient. Certain cyanobacteria can also regulate their position in the water column, thereby enabling them to capitalize on changing environmental conditions. HABsMany also are adept at effectively photosynthesizing under low light conditions. Finally, they are selectively rejected as a food source by filter feeders and zooplankton. These “life history” strategies enable cyanobacteria to rapidly out-compete phytoplankton and exploit their environment leading to a bloom.

It has been repeatedly documented that, under the correct set of conditions, HABs may generate very high concentrations of cyanotoxins. These toxins are used by cyanobacteria to achieve dominance in a lake, pond or river. Swimming in waters with even low concentrations of cyanotoxin may cause skin rashes (even for dogs and livestock), ear/throat infections and gastrointestinal distress. At high concentrations, cyanotoxins can impact the health of humans, pets and livestock. Drinking water contaminated by very high cyanotoxin concentrations can actually be lethal. Recently, increased attention is being given to possible links between cyanotoxins and neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, ALS and Alzheimer’s.

The cyanobacteria of greatest concern include Microcystis, Planktothrix, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya and Gloeotrichia. Different types of cyanotoxins are produced by these various cyanobacteria. The cyanotoxins receiving the most attention are Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin, but Anatoxin–a, Saxitoxins and Anatoxin-a(S) are also very problematic.

Regulatory agencies are still struggling to define what constitutes a “problem” and how to deal with HABs. For a number of years the World Health Organization (WHO) has used a provisional drinking water standard of 1 µg/L microcystin in drinking water. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recently issued cyanotoxin guidance for drinking water that provides different action levels for children versus adults and for microcystin and cylindrospermopsin¹. Adding to the confusion, the majority of the States are still developing guidance and/or regulations concerning cyanotoxins in both drinking water and recreational waterbodies. As such, it is difficult to define when a bloom constitutes a problem and, more importantly, what action to implement to protect the health and welfare of the public, pets and livestock.

Cyanotoxins may be released into the environment by both living and dead cyanobacteria. However, the greatest concentrations occur as the cyanobacteria die and the cells break down –  something that is exacerbated by treating it with copper sulfate, which is the standard response to treating a bloom. Thus, “killing off” a bloom can actually make matters worse by quickly releasing large amounts of cyanotoxins into the water column. Once released into the environment, cyanotoxins are extremely stable and decompose slowly.

Common Misconceptions About HABs

There are a variety of common misconceptions about HABs, including: they occur only in the summer when water temperatures are elevated; they are unique to nutrient rich (hypereutrophic) systems; they are driven solely by elevated phosphorus concentrations; and they are most likely to occur under stable (stratified) water column conditions. The most potentially harmful misconception is that HABs can be cured by treating them with copper sulfate; because, as noted above, copper sulfate treatments can actually make things worse.

The above “typical conditions” don’t always lead to a HAB, and blooms with elevated cyanotoxin levels may occur even in nutrient-limited waters or under environmental circumstances that deviate from the “norm.” To further complicate matters, not all cyanobacteria are associated with HABs, cyanotoxin producers may not always produce cyanotoxins, and the taste and odor compounds often associated with HABs may be generated by non-HAB algae species. As such, the only definitive way to understand if a waterbody suffers from, or is in danger of suffering from, a HAB is to collect the proper data. This includes:

  • Quantification and speciation of the phytoplankton community
  • Collection and analysis of Chlorophyll a
  • In-Situ measurement of
    • Dissolved oxygen
    • Temperature
    • pH
    • Secchi disk depth
  • Collection and analysis of
    • Phosphorus (TP, SRP, DOP and DIP)
    • Nitrogen (Nitrate and Ammonia)
  • Measurement of taste and odor compounds
    • Geosmin
    • 2-methylisoborneol (aka MIB)
  • Analysis of the amount of Microcystin present in the water column.

To date, cyanotoxin testing has been expensive and the data turn-around slow.

A Strategy for Tracking and Managing HABs

To help understand and monitor HABs, Princeton Hydro recently launched a multi-prong strategy called PARE™ (Predict, Analyze, React, and Educate). Princeton Hydro’s PARE™ program focuses on the importance of thoroughly understanding site conditions, properly tailoring action programs and sustaining management efforts that go far beyond simply treating a bloom. As noted above, the PARE™ program consists of four key, interrelated elements:

  • Predict – Forecast a bloom using a long-term database of keystone parameters, and/or remote sensing techniques
  • Analyze – Quantify a bloom’s severity by measuring key diagnostic parameters including Microcystin
  • React – Implement measures to prevent, control or terminate a HAB
  • Educate – Share information with and educate the community about HABs

Predict

Ideally, to successfully predict HABs, it is paramount to measure the amounts of phosphorus, nitrogen, and chlorophyll in the water column, track dissolved oxygen and water temperature profiles, and identify the types and densities of cyanoWater Quality Databacteria and phytoplankton. Overall, in order to effectively predict the onset, magnitude and duration of a HAB, it is necessary to have a good data foundation.

Analyze

With an adequate database, it becomes possible to develop algorithms that account for all of the chemical, hydrologic and physical variables that may lead to HABs, including seasonal differences in weather and precipitation. In some cases it may also be possible to utilize remote sensing technology to track bloom development.

With a suitable database, it becomes possible to develop HAB thresholds based on:

  • Phytoplankton densities (cell counts)
  • Bloom indicators
    • Declining Secchi disc clarity : < 1 meter)
    • Chlorophyll a concentration: >20 µg/L)
    • MIB concentration : >10 ng/L
    • Geosmin concentration: > 10 ng/L

As part of PARE™ we also now have the ability to quickly and effectively measure the concentration of Microcystin in the water column using a combination of rapid response field test kits and accurate, quick-turnaround laboratory analyses.  The Microcystin data can then be compared to established USEPA or, when available, state guidance concentrations for cyanotoxins in drinking water and recreational water.

React

The data that are generated from the Predict and Analyze elements of the PARE™ program enables us to know when aChart bloom is about to occur or has developed, and quantify the severity of the bloom.  The many variables that may lead to HABs interact in a complex manner in lake and pond ecosystems. Manipulating the ecosystem to prevent or treat HABs requires extensive expertise.  

Some of the interactions that must be taken into consideration include:   

Biological linkages and interactions

  • Nitrogen fixers versus non-nitrogen fixers
  • Early blooming species potentially setting the stage for more problematic later blooming species
  • Zooplanktivory and the role of the fishery in stimulating a bloom or creating the environmental conditions supportive of a bloom
  • Nitrogen/Phosphorus ratios as well as the type, availability and sources of these primary nutrients

Through the correct understanding of these interactions it becomes possible to properly React by designing and implementing various pre-emptive controls and corrective measures such as:

  • Aeration and mixing,
  • Use of nutrient inactivators (alum, PhosLock® and alum surrogates),
  • Ozone,
  • Biomanipulation of the fish and plankton communities, and
  • Limited, properly timed algaecide applications.  

On a larger, long-term scale, the React element of the PARE™ program encompasses watershed management programs targeting nutrient load reductions that can actually reduce bloom frequency/intensity.  

Although the React element recognizes the role of algaecides as a potential part of the solution, it does not condone repeated extensive treatments with copper sulfate.  As noted above, relying solely on substantial copper sulfate treatments most often only triggers worse conditions and leads to spiraling, repetitive blooms.

Education and Outreach

Besides informing the public about health concerns related to cyanobacteria and HABs, it is important that stakeholders are also informed about measures that they can implement to help prevent blooms.  This includes “on-lot” nutrient controls such as septic management, limited application of lawn fertilizers, creation of shoreline buffers and waterfowl control. It is also necessary for stakeholders to understand the lifecycle of HABs, that ongoing monitoring and management help address HABs before they peak, and that, while seeming to be the “magic bullet,” copper sulfate is not the proper management tool.

Implementing PARE™

Begin PARE™ early, with the sampling of the above-noted key water quality Sampling Kitparameters and bloom initiated in early spring.  Then sample on a regular basis over the entire course of the growing season, especially in the summer when cyanobacteria problems emerge and peak. This information will become the foundation of the comprehensive database used to make timely management decisions.  The key is to be in a position to predict the onset of a bloom so that management actions can be implemented in a proactive, as opposed to reactive, manner.  Microcystin sampling can be focused on beach areas or around water intakes.  Begin with the simple, test-strip rapid response, in-field testing and, when necessary, use the laboratory analyses to confirm or further quantify whether a bloom has triggered a cyanotoxin problem.  If there is early evidence of a cyanobacteria bloom, implement the proper measures needed to control the bloom.  While bloom control measures are being implemented, continue to collect and analyze the microcystin data to confirm that the implemented measures have improved water quality and that conditions are safe for the ingestion of the water or the recreational use of the lake. After achieving specific water quality and HAB control goals, continue to implement the measures needed to track conditions and prevent/react to future blooms.  This will further facilitate the ability to respond to and control cyanobacteria blooms.

For more information about HABs and PARE™ come see us at the upcoming Pennsylvania Lake Management Society (PALMS) Conference. Click for details.


¹0.3 µg/L for microcystin and 0.7 µg/L for cylindrospermopsin children < than school age. For all others 1.6 µg/L for microcystin and 3.0 µg/L for cylindrospermopsin.

Natural VS. Artificial Lakes

In addition to deep versus shallow, waterbodies can also be compared and contrasted as naturally occurring or as the result of an artificial impoundment or reservoir. While there are a wide variety of natural lakes -from the glacial lakes of northern regions, to oxbow lakes adjacent to rivers, to coastal lakes that can be connected to the ocean – most of these natural systems have a number of common characteristics. Some of these include variable nutrient and sediment loading (from low to high, depending on the nature of the watershed) and low to moderate watershed-to-lake area ratios. In addition, natural waterbodies tend to have distinct and sometimes extensive littoral zone fringe habitat along the shoreline. Littoral habitat is the interface between the land and the open waters of a lake. Typically, rooted aquatic macrophytes (plants and mat algae) are found in the littoral zone, along with a number of aquatic organisms that use this habitat for food and/or cover. Thus, the littoral zone of lake is frequently the most productive areas of this ecosystem.

Graphic adapted from www.cues.cfans_umin.edu

Graphic adapted from www.cues.cfans_umin.edu

In contrast, large artificial impoundments, frequently called reservoirs, are waterbodies typically created by placing a dam across a stream or river (see below). This often results in the triangular shape of a reservoir; the deepest portion is located just behind the dam. Unlike many natural lakes that have a number of small inlet or inflow streams, a reservoir typically has one main inflow, which is essentially the river or stream that was originally dammed. Traveling upgradient from the dam towards the main inlet, water depth will decline. Additionally, many reservoirs are a type of hybrid of natural lakes and rivers. The upgradient/inflow part of the reservoir functions more like a riverine system, while the main body of the reservoir near the dam functions more like a lake (see below).

Graphic adapted from Reservoir Limnology: Ecological Perspectives, edited by K.W. Thornton, B.L. Kimmel and F.E. Payne, 1990

Graphic adapted from Reservoir Limnology: Ecological Perspectives, edited by K.W. Thornton, B.L. Kimmel and F.E. Payne, 1990

Since reservoirs are essentially dammed rivers, they tend to have very large watershed-to -lake area ratios, which means they tend to experience substantially higher nutrient and sediment loads compared to natural lakes. Thus, the level of productivity (algae growth) in the open waters of a reservoir is substantially higher than those of a natural lake. This means reservoirs have the tendency to experience larger and more frequent algal blooms. High rates of sediment loads also means rates of sedimentation will be higher in reservoirs compared to natural lakes. Finally, since the water level of reservoirs are highly dependent on inflow from the main riverine source, as well as water withdrawals in the case in drinking water supplies, the establishment of a littoral zone in reservoirs tends to be very limited.

In summary, a reservoir of comparable size to a natural lake will typically have a higher level of algal productivity, higher rates of sedimentation, and a smaller amount of biological diversity (with the general absence of a littoral zone). Thus, water quality problems can be larger and more frequent in reservoirs when compared to many natural lakes. Since many reservoirs are vital sources of potable water for millions of people throughout the United States, the general management activities for a reservoir tends to be higher relative to many natural lakes.

Join us next time, when we will discuss lake and pond productivity, the role the watershed plays in productivity, and how this impacts their recreational, potable and ecological value.