Princeton Hydro’s PARE™ Program:
A Tool for Tracking and Addressing Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs)
Over the past decade we have learned more about the serious health implications associated with intense cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae) blooms. Although cyanobacteria are not truly algae, these blooms have come to be labeled Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs). Cyanobacteria have a number of evolved advantages relative to “good phytoplankton.” For example, many cyanobacteria are capable of fixing and assimilating atmospheric nitrogen, thus providing them with an unlimited source of a key growth-limiting nutrient. Most are also biologically adept at up-taking and utilizing organic phosphorus, another growth-limiting nutrient. Certain cyanobacteria can also regulate their position in the water column, thereby enabling them to capitalize on changing environmental conditions. Many also are adept at effectively photosynthesizing under low light conditions. Finally, they are selectively rejected as a food source by filter feeders and zooplankton. These “life history” strategies enable cyanobacteria to rapidly out-compete phytoplankton and exploit their environment leading to a bloom.
It has been repeatedly documented that, under the correct set of conditions, HABs may generate very high concentrations of cyanotoxins. These toxins are used by cyanobacteria to achieve dominance in a lake, pond or river. Swimming in waters with even low concentrations of cyanotoxin may cause skin rashes (even for dogs and livestock), ear/throat infections and gastrointestinal distress. At high concentrations, cyanotoxins can impact the health of humans, pets and livestock. Drinking water contaminated by very high cyanotoxin concentrations can actually be lethal. Recently, increased attention is being given to possible links between cyanotoxins and neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, ALS and Alzheimer’s.
The cyanobacteria of greatest concern include Microcystis, Planktothrix, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya and Gloeotrichia. Different types of cyanotoxins are produced by these various cyanobacteria. The cyanotoxins receiving the most attention are Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin, but Anatoxin–a, Saxitoxins and Anatoxin-a(S) are also very problematic.
Regulatory agencies are still struggling to define what constitutes a “problem” and how to deal with HABs. For a number of years the World Health Organization (WHO) has used a provisional drinking water standard of 1 µg/L microcystin in drinking water. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recently issued cyanotoxin guidance for drinking water that provides different action levels for children versus adults and for microcystin and cylindrospermopsin¹. Adding to the confusion, the majority of the States are still developing guidance and/or regulations concerning cyanotoxins in both drinking water and recreational waterbodies. As such, it is difficult to define when a bloom constitutes a problem and, more importantly, what action to implement to protect the health and welfare of the public, pets and livestock.
Cyanotoxins may be released into the environment by both living and dead cyanobacteria. However, the greatest concentrations occur as the cyanobacteria die and the cells break down – something that is exacerbated by treating it with copper sulfate, which is the standard response to treating a bloom. Thus, “killing off” a bloom can actually make matters worse by quickly releasing large amounts of cyanotoxins into the water column. Once released into the environment, cyanotoxins are extremely stable and decompose slowly.
Common Misconceptions About HABs
There are a variety of common misconceptions about HABs, including: they occur only in the summer when water temperatures are elevated; they are unique to nutrient rich (hypereutrophic) systems; they are driven solely by elevated phosphorus concentrations; and they are most likely to occur under stable (stratified) water column conditions. The most potentially harmful misconception is that HABs can be cured by treating them with copper sulfate; because, as noted above, copper sulfate treatments can actually make things worse.
The above “typical conditions” don’t always lead to a HAB, and blooms with elevated cyanotoxin levels may occur even in nutrient-limited waters or under environmental circumstances that deviate from the “norm.” To further complicate matters, not all cyanobacteria are associated with HABs, cyanotoxin producers may not always produce cyanotoxins, and the taste and odor compounds often associated with HABs may be generated by non-HAB algae species. As such, the only definitive way to understand if a waterbody suffers from, or is in danger of suffering from, a HAB is to collect the proper data. This includes:
- Quantification and speciation of the phytoplankton community
- Collection and analysis of Chlorophyll a
- In-Situ measurement of
- Dissolved oxygen
- Secchi disk depth
- Collection and analysis of
- Phosphorus (TP, SRP, DOP and DIP)
- Nitrogen (Nitrate and Ammonia)
- Measurement of taste and odor compounds
- 2-methylisoborneol (aka MIB)
- Analysis of the amount of Microcystin present in the water column.
To date, cyanotoxin testing has been expensive and the data turn-around slow.
A Strategy for Tracking and Managing HABs
To help understand and monitor HABs, Princeton Hydro recently launched a multi-prong strategy called PARE™ (Predict, Analyze, React, and Educate). Princeton Hydro’s PARE™ program focuses on the importance of thoroughly understanding site conditions, properly tailoring action programs and sustaining management efforts that go far beyond simply treating a bloom. As noted above, the PARE™ program consists of four key, interrelated elements:
- Predict – Forecast a bloom using a long-term database of keystone parameters, and/or remote sensing techniques
- Analyze – Quantify a bloom’s severity by measuring key diagnostic parameters including Microcystin
- React – Implement measures to prevent, control or terminate a HAB
- Educate – Share information with and educate the community about HABs
Ideally, to successfully predict HABs, it is paramount to measure the amounts of phosphorus, nitrogen, and chlorophyll in the water column, track dissolved oxygen and water temperature profiles, and identify the types and densities of cyanobacteria and phytoplankton. Overall, in order to effectively predict the onset, magnitude and duration of a HAB, it is necessary to have a good data foundation.
With an adequate database, it becomes possible to develop algorithms that account for all of the chemical, hydrologic and physical variables that may lead to HABs, including seasonal differences in weather and precipitation. In some cases it may also be possible to utilize remote sensing technology to track bloom development.
With a suitable database, it becomes possible to develop HAB thresholds based on:
- Phytoplankton densities (cell counts)
- Bloom indicators
- Declining Secchi disc clarity : < 1 meter)
- Chlorophyll a concentration: >20 µg/L)
- MIB concentration : >10 ng/L
- Geosmin concentration: > 10 ng/L
As part of PARE™ we also now have the ability to quickly and effectively measure the concentration of Microcystin in the water column using a combination of rapid response field test kits and accurate, quick-turnaround laboratory analyses. The Microcystin data can then be compared to established USEPA or, when available, state guidance concentrations for cyanotoxins in drinking water and recreational water.
The data that are generated from the Predict and Analyze elements of the PARE™ program enables us to know when a bloom is about to occur or has developed, and quantify the severity of the bloom. The many variables that may lead to HABs interact in a complex manner in lake and pond ecosystems. Manipulating the ecosystem to prevent or treat HABs requires extensive expertise.
Some of the interactions that must be taken into consideration include:
Biological linkages and interactions
- Nitrogen fixers versus non-nitrogen fixers
- Early blooming species potentially setting the stage for more problematic later blooming species
- Zooplanktivory and the role of the fishery in stimulating a bloom or creating the environmental conditions supportive of a bloom
- Nitrogen/Phosphorus ratios as well as the type, availability and sources of these primary nutrients
Through the correct understanding of these interactions it becomes possible to properly React by designing and implementing various pre-emptive controls and corrective measures such as:
- Aeration and mixing,
- Use of nutrient inactivators (alum, PhosLock® and alum surrogates),
- Biomanipulation of the fish and plankton communities, and
- Limited, properly timed algaecide applications.
On a larger, long-term scale, the React element of the PARE™ program encompasses watershed management programs targeting nutrient load reductions that can actually reduce bloom frequency/intensity.
Although the React element recognizes the role of algaecides as a potential part of the solution, it does not condone repeated extensive treatments with copper sulfate. As noted above, relying solely on substantial copper sulfate treatments most often only triggers worse conditions and leads to spiraling, repetitive blooms.
Education and Outreach
Besides informing the public about health concerns related to cyanobacteria and HABs, it is important that stakeholders are also informed about measures that they can implement to help prevent blooms. This includes “on-lot” nutrient controls such as septic management, limited application of lawn fertilizers, creation of shoreline buffers and waterfowl control. It is also necessary for stakeholders to understand the lifecycle of HABs, that ongoing monitoring and management help address HABs before they peak, and that, while seeming to be the “magic bullet,” copper sulfate is not the proper management tool.
Begin PARE™ early, with the sampling of the above-noted key water quality parameters and bloom initiated in early spring. Then sample on a regular basis over the entire course of the growing season, especially in the summer when cyanobacteria problems emerge and peak. This information will become the foundation of the comprehensive database used to make timely management decisions. The key is to be in a position to predict the onset of a bloom so that management actions can be implemented in a proactive, as opposed to reactive, manner. Microcystin sampling can be focused on beach areas or around water intakes. Begin with the simple, test-strip rapid response, in-field testing and, when necessary, use the laboratory analyses to confirm or further quantify whether a bloom has triggered a cyanotoxin problem. If there is early evidence of a cyanobacteria bloom, implement the proper measures needed to control the bloom. While bloom control measures are being implemented, continue to collect and analyze the microcystin data to confirm that the implemented measures have improved water quality and that conditions are safe for the ingestion of the water or the recreational use of the lake. After achieving specific water quality and HAB control goals, continue to implement the measures needed to track conditions and prevent/react to future blooms. This will further facilitate the ability to respond to and control cyanobacteria blooms.
¹0.3 µg/L for microcystin and 0.7 µg/L for cylindrospermopsin children < than school age. For all others 1.6 µg/L for microcystin and 3.0 µg/L for cylindrospermopsin.